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Toning / metallic toning (French: virage, German: Tonung)

Description

In contrast to tinting, toning is not the simple immersion of a film into a dye bath but involves a chemical reaction converting the silver image. In this reaction the neutral silver image in the emulsion of the positive film is replaced by one consisting of colored metal compounds. These were usually iron ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) for blue, copper ferrocyanide for red/brown, silver sulfide for sepia or rarely uranium ferrocyanide for reddish brown. Toning had been used in still photography before. But since film was projected on the screen it required translucent toning compounds.

In principle, toned images can be identified easily by the transparent bright image parts and perforation areas, while the shadows and the dark parts are colored in a specific hue (see images on this page). In practice, however, the brighter parts can also be affected by the diffusion of dyeing compounds, or the images were tinted and toned in combination.

There were two chemical recipes available for toning, either a one-bath or a two-bath process. In the one-bath process, the silver image is converted to silver ferrocyanide and then combined with the colored ferrocyanide. In the two-bath process, metallic ferricyanide first bleaches the metal silver to silver ferrocyanide. In the second step, the silver ferrocyanide is converted to colored metal ferrocyanide.

See also mordant or dye toning








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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

(1925*): Agfa Kine-Handbuch. Berlin: Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation, Teil I on pp. 79–80 and Teil III on pp. 7–15. (in German) [* year estimated] View Quote

Bedding, Thomas (1909): Practical Moving-Picture Making. Tinting and Toning. In: The Bioscope, 157, Oct., pp. 23–25. View Quote

Conrad-Alberti, Victor (1933): Die technischen und künstlerischen Voraussetzungen für die Herstellung farbiger Kulturfilme. In: Film-Kurier, 112, 13.5.1933.) (in German) View Quote

Didiée, L. (1926): Le Film vierge Pathé. Manuel de développement et de tirage. Paris: Pathé, pp. 129-135. (in French) View Quote

Duncan, F. Martin (1909): Artistic Toning Effects. In: The Bioscope, 130, Apr., p. 17. View Quote

Duncan, F. Martin (1909): Artistic Toning Effects. In: The Bioscope, 131, Apr., p. 15. View Quote

Eastman Kodak Company (1916): Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY. [following editions in 1918, 1922, 1924, and 1927] View Quote

Eastman Kodak Company (1927): Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, on p. 6 View Quote, on pp. 13–14 View Quote, on pp. 17–18 View Quote, on p. 18 View Quote, on p. 23 View Quote, on pp. 23–24 View Quote, on p. 24 View Quote, on p. 25 View Quote, on pp. 25–26 View Quote, on p. 26 View Quote, on pp. 26–27 View Quote, on pp. 27–28 View Quote, on pp. 28–30 View Quote, on pp. 30–32 View Quote, on p. 32 View Quote, on pp. 32–34 View Quote, on p. 35 View Quote, on pp. 35–36 View Quote, on p. 36 View Quote, on pp. 36–39. View Quote

Fischer, Rudolf (1913): Toning Bromide Prints. In: The British Journal of Photography, 60, p. 712. View Quote

Secondary Sources

Abel, Richard (1996): Pathé’s “Heavenly Billboards”. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 56–76, on p. 61. View Quote

Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!” Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 36–37. (in German) View Quote

Anonymous (1911): Toning and Tinting as an Adjunct to the Picture. In: Moving Picture World, 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574. View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 14–15. View Quote

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix. In: Sarah Street: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 259-287, on pp. 286-287. View Quote

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 8. (in German) View Quote

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Abel, Richard (Hrsg): Silent Film. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp. 21-30, on pp. 26-27. View Quote

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 24-27. View Quote

De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31. (in French) View Quote

Degenhardt, Inge (1996): On the Absence and Presence of Colour in Film. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 88–102. View Quote

Eggert, John; Heymer, Gerd (1937): Der Stand der Farbenphotographie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, pp. 7–28, on p. 21. (in German) View Quote

Everett, Wendy (2007): Mapping Colour. An Introduction to the Theories and Practices of Colour. In: Wendy Everett (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 7–38, on p. 18 View Quote and on pp. 18–19. View Quote

Famulener, K. (1939): Some Studies on the Use of Color Coupling Developers for Toning Processes. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 4, pp. 412–418, on pp. 412–414 and on p. 417. View Quote

Fossati, Giovanna (1998): When Cinema Was Coloured. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 121-132, on pp. 125-126 View Quote, pp. 127-128 View Quote and p. 130 View Quote.

Genaitay, Sonia; Dixon, Bryony (2010): Early Colour Film Restoration at the BFI National Archive. In: Journal of British Cinema and Television, 7,1, pp. 131-146.

Goergen, Jeanpaul (2010): Bunte Bilder aus dem Farbenbottich. Tonung und Virage in dokumentarischen Filmen der 1910er und 1920er Jahre. In: Filmblatt, pp. 3–52, on pp. 3–4 View Quote, on pp. 5–7 View Quote, on p. 10 View Quote, on pp. 15–20 View Quote, on p. 43 View Quote and on p. 44–45. (in German) View Quote

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on pp. 111–112. View Quote

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, Audiences, and (Dis)Continuity in the ‘Cinema of the Second Period’. In: Film History, 21,1, 2009, pp. 67-93. Link to download.

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on p. 18 View Quote and on pp. 19–22. (in Italian) View Quote

Oliveira, João S. de (2002): Black-and-White in Colour. In: Roger Smither (ed.), This Film is Dangerous. A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. 117-122, on pp. 118-119. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 20 View Quote and on pp. 52–53. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 18-19. (in French) View Quote

Read, Paul (1998): Tinting and Toning Techniques and their Adaption for the Restoration of Archive Film. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al. (eds.): Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Diabasis, pp. 157–167, on pp. 157–158. View Quote

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 14-15 View Quote, see list of metallic tones on pp. 37-39 View Quote and combined tones on pp. 44-45. View Quote

Ruivo, Céline (2013): Le Livre de fabrication de la compagnie générale des phonographes cinématographes et appareils de précision. À propos d’une source pour l’histoire des recherches sur la couleur chez Pathé Frères entre 1906 et 1908. In: 1895. Revue d’Histoire du Cinéma, 71, pp. 47–60, on pp. 51–53 View Quote, on pp. 54–56 View Quote, on p. 56 View Quote and on pp. 56–58. (in French) View Quote

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 19-20. View Quote

Stokes, Melvyn (2009): Colour in American Cinema. From The Great Train Robbery to Bonnie and Clyde. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 184–192, on p. 185. View Quote

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, pp. 4-6  View Quote and pp. 100-105. View Quote

Edge Codes and Identification

Brown, Harold (1990): Physical Characteristics of Early Films as Aids to Identification. Brussels: FIAF.

Agfa: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

 

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

 

View Image in Gallery: Der Alpenweg. Sallanches, Gombloux, Megeve (CH [1920])

 

View Image in Gallery: Die Hochbahnkatastrophe (GER 1921)

View Image in Gallery: Die Hochbahnkatastrophe (GER 1921)

View Image in Gallery: Die Hochbahnkatastrophe (GER 1921)

 

Cines: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

View Image in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

 

Cines: Frame characteristics / features of margins. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

 

Cines: Title styles. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: Massafra (ITA 1911)

 

Eclair: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

 

Eclair: Title styles. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

 

Gaumont: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

View Image in Gallery: [Gaumont Fragments]

 

Gevaert: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Voyage autour d’une étoile (FRA 1906, Gaston Velle)

 

Kodak: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (1919)

View Image in Gallery: Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (1919)

 

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925)

 

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917)

 

View Image in Gallery: Der Alpenweg. Sallanches, Gombloux, Megeve (CH [1920])

 

View Image in Gallery: Toning Samples (Kodak Film Samples Collection)

View Image in Gallery: Toning Samples (Kodak Film Samples Collection)

 

Pathé: Edge marks (producer). View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: An Atlantic Voyage (GER / GBR / FRA)

 

View Images in Gallery: Les petits vagabonds (FRA 1905, Lucien Nonguet)

 

Pathé: Edge marks (stock manufacturer). View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

View Image in Gallery: [Tänze] (? 1920s)

 

Measurements

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Multispectral acquisition in condensed and diffuse illumination. For both light configurations, absorbances of deep blue toning and pink tinting (left) and colorimetric images (right). Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

See the specific sample from which the spectra were measured.

Restoration

Aubert, Michelle (1992): Pour une déontologie de la restauration des films en couleur. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 25–28, on pp. 26–27. (in French) View Quote

Berriatúa, Luciano (1998): Regarding a Catalogue of the Tints Used on the Silent Screen. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 135-139. View Quote

Boarini, Vittorio (1992): La couleur dans le cinéma muet. Des techniques anciennes pour une restauration moderne. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 33–36, on pp. 34–36. (in French) View Quote

Desmet, Noël; Read, Paul (1998): The Desmetcolor Method for Restoring Tinted and Toned Films. In: Luciano Berriatúa, Manlio Brusatin, Noël Desmet, Enrico Fornaroli, Giovanna Fossati, Bertrand Lavedrine, Bob Mabberley, Nicola Mazzanti, Ruggero Pierantoni, Paul Read and Sonja Snoek: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizione Diabasis, pp. 147–150. View Quote

Farinelli, Nicola; Mazzanti, Gian Luca (2001): Il restauro. Metodo e tecnica. In: Gian Piero Brunetta (ed.): Storia del cinema mondiale. Vol. 5. Teorie, strumenti, memorie. Bologna: Einaudi, pp. 1119–1174, on p. 1147 View Quote and on p. 1169. (in Italian) View Quote

Gunning, Tom (2013): Where Do Colors Go at Night? In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 81–92, on pp. 82–86. View Quote

Hertogs, Daan; De Klerk, Nico (1996): Disorderly Order. Colours in Silent Film. The 1995 Amsterdam Workshop. Amsterdam: Stichding Nederlands Filmmuseum, on pp. 6-7 View Quote, on pp. 12-14 View Quote, on pp. 18-19 View Quote, on pp. 23-25 View Quote, on pp. 71-76 View Quote and on pp. 87-88. View Quote

Mabberley, Bob; Read, Paul; Snoek, Sonja (1998): Recording and Reproducing the Original Tints and Tones of Quo Vadis. A Technical Case Study. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 151-155. View Quote

Mazzanti, Nicola (1998): The Colours of the Film d’Arte Italiana. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 141-146. View Quote

Read, Paul (1998): Tinting and Toning Techniques and their Adaption for the Restoration of Archive Film. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al. (eds.): Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Diabasis, pp. 157‒167, on pp. 160‒161 View Quote, on pp. 161–162 View Quote, on p. 163 View Quote, pp. 163–164 View Quote and on pp. 164–166. View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Films Coloured by Toning. In: Restoration of Motion Picture Film. Oxford, pp. 185-188. View Quote

Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on p. 20. View Quote

Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 33–34. (in German) View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Herbert G. Ponting’s Materials and Texts. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 230–242, on pp. 230–240. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Giovanna Fossati. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 228–235, on pp. 229–235. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. João S. De Oliveira, Hon. FBKS. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 171–185, on pp. 175–185. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Paolo Cherchi Usai. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 208–218, on pp. 215–218. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Ulrich Rüdel and Daniela Currò. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 219–227, on pp. 221–226. View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Cocanari, Silvio (1912): I viraggi. In: La Vita Cinematografica, III,3, 15 febbraio 1912, pp. 2–5 published in Grifo, Marco (2006): Dal film colorato al cinema a colori. In: Michele Canosa, Giulia Carluccio and Federica Villa (eds.): Cinema muto italiano. Tecnica e tecnologia. Volume primo. Roma: Carocci, pp. 188–195. (in Italian) View Quote

Coustet, Ernest (1921): Le cinéma. Paris: Librairie Hachette, on p. 6 View Quote and on pp. 160-162. (in French) View Quote

Fossati, Giovanna (1998): When Cinema Was Coloured. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 121-132, on pp. 126-131. View Quote

Rühl, Richard (1923): Virage. In: Film-Kurier, 12.2.1923. (in German) View Quote


 

The King of Kings (USA 1927, Cecil B. DeMille; H. B. Warner; Dorothy Cumming; Ernest Torrence; Joseph Schildkraut):
Anonymous (1926): The King of Kings. In: Variety, 31 December 1926. View Quote
Full text on the Variety website. View Link


 

The Phantom of the Opera (USA 1925, Rupert Julian):
Barr, Al (1925): A Duplex Report on The Phantom. In: Exhibitors Herald, XXII,12, Sep., p. 52. View Quote

Benson, Sally (1925): The Screen in Review. Expensive and Everything. In: Picture-Play Magazine, XXIII,4, Dec., p. 59. View Quote


 

The Ten Commandments (USA 1923, Cecil B. DeMille):
Anonymous (1923): The Screen. In: New York Times, 22 December 1923, p. 8. View Quote

Anonymous (1924): The Ten Commendations of The Ten Commandments. In: Variety, LXXIII,7, Jan., p. 69. View Quote

Anonymous (1924): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. The Ten Commandments. In: Photoplay, XXV,3, Feb., p. 62. View Quote

Selected Analyses

The Affairs of Anatol (USA 1921, Cecil B. DeMille):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 89–93. View Quote


 

Cabiria (ITA 1914, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 71.) (in Italian) View Quote


 

Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (GER 1919, Robert Wiene):
Flueckiger, Barbara (2015 ): Color Analysis for the Digital Restoration of Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari. In: Joshua Yumibe (ed.): Moving Image, 15/1, pp. 22-43 (peer-reviewed) Link to download

Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 180–183. View Quote


 

Cyrano de Bergerac (ITA, FRA 1923, Augusto Genina):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 216–217. View Quote


 

Die Verräterin (GER 1911, Urban Gad):
De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31, on p. 30. (in French) View Quote


 

Downhill (GBR 1927, Alfred Hitchcock) (sequence):
Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on pp. 19–20. View Quote


 

Il fuoco (ITA 1915, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 72–73. (in Italian) View Quote


 

L’Atlantide/Queen of Atlantis (FRA/BEL 1921, Jacques Feyder):
De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31, on pp. 30–31. (in French) View Quote


 

La poule aux œufs d’or (FRA 1905, Gaston Velle):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 43–47. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Napoléon (FRA 1927, Abel Gance):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on p. 35. (in German) View Quote


 

Rapsodia satanica (ITA 1917, Nino Oxilia):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 76–79. (in Italian) View Quote


 

The Great White Silence (GBR 1924, Herbert G. Ponting):
Watkins, Liz (2013): Herbert G. Ponting’s Materials and Texts. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 230–242, on pp. 233–235. View Quote


 

The Lodger. A Story of the London Fog (GBR 1927, Alfred Hitchcock):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2013): The Temporalities of Intermediality. Colour in Cinema and the Arts of the 1920s. In: Early Popular Visual Culture, 11,2, May, pp. 140–157, on pp. 152-154. View Quote

Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 213-216. View Quote


 

The Phantom of the Opera (USA 1925, Rupert Julian):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 31–33. (in German) View Quote


 

The Son of the Sheik (USA 1926, George Fitzmaurice):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 32–35. (in German) View Quote


 

The Ten Commandments (USA 1923, Cecil B. DeMille):
Birchard, Robert S. (1992): The Ten Commandments (1923). DeMille Completes Personal Exodus. In: American Cinematographer, 73,10, pp. 76–80, on pp. 76–77. View Quote

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on pp. 99–102. View Quote


 

Tigre reale (ITA 1916, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 73–74. (in Italian) View Quote