Search

Tinting (French: teintage, German: Virage)

Description

For tinting, the positive print is immersed into a variety of dye baths, scene by scene. To this end, the print has to be cut into the corresponding fragments and reassembled after the dyeing process. The dye homogeneously attaches over the entire image’s gelatin including the perforation area. Usually synthetic dyes were dissolved in a weak acid solution to form a chemical bond with the gelatin.

Tinting can be identified by the brighter image parts which are colored uniformely while the darker parts remain black. Sometimes, however, the dyes are fading or producing complex color alterations due to their chemical nature, or tinting is combined with toning which makes identification more difficult.

While there were some conventional metaphorical associations such as blue tinting for night scenes or red tinting for fire, these associations were neither stable nor mandatory. Therefore it is necessary to analyse the color scheme in each individual film with regard to its narrative structure unfolding in space and time.




















Galleries Hide all Galleries ×Open all Galleries

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

(1925*): Agfa Kine-Handbuch. Berlin: Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation, Teil I on pp. 80–81 and Teil III on p. 15. (in German) [* year estimated] View Quote

Bedding, Thomas (1909): Practical Moving-Picture Making. Tinting and Toning. In: The Bioscope, 157, Oct., pp. 23–25. View Quote

Blair, G.A. (1920): The Tinting of Motion Picture Film. In: Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 4,10, pp. 45–53, on pp. 45–49 View Quote, on p. 49 View Quote, on p. 50 View Quote and on pp. 51–53. View Quote

Conrad-Alberti, Victor (1933): Die technischen und künstlerischen Voraussetzungen für die Herstellung farbiger Kulturfilme. In: Film-Kurier, 112, 13.5.1933. (in German) View Quote

Didiée, L. (1926): Le Film vierge Pathé. Manuel de développement et de tirage. Paris: Pathé, pp. 123-128. (in French) View Quote

Eastman Kodak Company (1916): Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY. [following editions in 1918, 1922, 1924, and 1927] View Quote

Eastman Kodak Company (1927): Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, on p. 6 View Quote, on pp. 7–8 View Quote, on pp. 9–11 View Quote, on pp. 11–14 View Quote, on pp. 14–16 View Quote, on pp. 17–18 View Quote, on pp. 18–19 View Quote, on p. 19 View Quote, on pp. 19–21 View Quote, on p. 35 View Quote and on p. 36. View Quote

Hulfish, David Sherill (1909): Pictures in Color. In: David Sherill Hulfish (ed.): The Motion Picture. Its Making and Its Theater. Chicago: Electricity Magazine Corporation, pp. 41–44, on pp. 41–42. View Quote

Secondary Sources

Abel, Richard (1996): Pathé’s “Heavenly Billboards”. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 56–76, on p. 61. View Quote

Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!”. Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 36–37 View Quote and on p. 355. (in German) View Quote

Anonymous (1911): Toning and tinting as an adjunct to the picture. In: Moving Picture World, 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574. View Quote

Aumont, Jacques (1996): Color Ideas From Silent Cinema. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 110-115, on pp. 113-115. View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 14–15. View Quote

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 8. (in German) View Quote

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix. In: Sarah Street: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 259-287, on pp. 286-287. View Quote

Buscombe, Edward (1978): Sound and Color. In: Jump Cut, 17, pp. 23–25. View Quote

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Richard Abel (ed.): Silent Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, pp. 21-30. View Quote

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 23-27. View Quote

De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31. (in French) View Quote

Degenhardt, Inge (1996): On the Absence and Presence of Colour in Film. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 88–102. View Quote

Everett, Wendy (2007): Mapping Colour. An Introduction to the Theories and Practices of Colour. In: Wendy Everett (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 7–38, on p. 18 View Quote and on pp. 18–19. View Quote

Fossati, Giovanna (1998): When Cinema Was Coloured. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 121-132, on pp. 124-125 View Quote, pp. 125-126 View Quote, p. 127 View Quote, p. 128 View Quote and p. 131 View Quote.

Genaitay, Sonia; Dixon, Bryony (2010): Early Colour Film Restoration at the BFI National Archive. In: Journal of British Cinema and Television, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 131-146.

Goergen, Jeanpaul (2010): Bunte Bilder aus dem Farbenbottich. Tonung und Virage in dokumentarischen Filmen der 1910er und 1920er Jahre. In: Filmblatt, pp. 3–52, on pp. 3–4 View Quote, on pp. 5–8 View Quote, on p. 9 View Quote, on p. 10 View Quote, on pp. 15–20 View Quote, on p. 35 View Quote, on pp. 42–43 View Quote, on pp. 44–45. (in German) View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on p. 63. (in German) View Quote

Gunning, Tom (1996): Colorful Metaphors. The Attraction of Color in Early Silent Cinema. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, on pp. 27-29. View Quote

Gunning, Tom; Yumibe, Josh; Fossati, Giovanna; Rosen, Jonathon (2015): Fantasia of Color in Early Cinema. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Hertogs, Daan; De Klerk, Nico (1996): Disorderly Order. Colours in Silent Film. The 1995 Amsterdam Workshop. Amsterdam: Stichding Nederlands Filmmuseum, on pp. 39-40 View Quote, on pp. 42-43 View Quote, on pp. 45-46 View Quote and on p. 47. View Quote

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on pp. 111–112 View Quote and on p. 126. View Quote

Mazzanti, Nicola (1998): The Colours of the Film d’Arte Italiana. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 141-146. View Quote

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, audiences, and (dis)continuity in the ‘cinema of the second period’. In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 67-93. Link

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on p. 18 View Quote and on pp. 19–22. (in Italian) View Quote

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of all Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 20-25. View Quote

Oliveira, João S. de (2002): Black-and-White in Colour. In Roger Smither (ed.): This Film is Dangerous. A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. 117-122, on p. 120. View Quote

Penning, Lars (1988): Farbe im klassischen Piratenfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 36–40, on pp. 36–37. (in German) View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 20 View Quote and on pp. 52–53. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 18-19. (in French) View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Films Coloured by Tinting. In: Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture Film, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 182-183. View Quote

Read, Paul (1998): Tinting and Toning Techniques and their Adaption for the Restoration of Archive Film. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al. (eds.): Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Diabasis, pp. 157–167, on pp. 158–159. View Quote

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 9-10 View Quote and pp. 12-13 View Quote, see list of tints on pp. 31-37. View Quote

Ruivo, Céline (2013): Le Livre de fabrication de la compagnie générale des phonographes cinématographes et appareils de précision. À propos d’une source pour l’histoire des recherches sur la couleur chez Pathé Frères entre 1906 et 1908. In: 1895. Revue d’Histoire du Cinema, 71, 2013, pp. 47–60, on p. 56. (in French) View Quote

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 16-19. View Quote

Stokes, Melvyn (2009): Colour in American Cinema. From The Great Train Robbery to Bonnie and Clyde. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 184–192, on p. 185. View Quote

Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 30–35. (in German) View Quote

Valtrovic, Vanja; Dibbets, Karel (1996): Colour in Italian Silent Films. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, on pp. 47-48. View Quote

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, p. 4 View Quote, pp. 76-77 View Quote and pp. 97-101. View Quote

Edge Codes and Identification

Brown, Harold (1990): Physical Characteristics of Early Films as Aids to Identification. Brussels: FIAF.

Agfa: Edge marks. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

View Image in Gallery: Roald Amundsen’s North Pole Expedition (Norway 1924)

 

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

View Image in Gallery: Der Märchenwald – Ein Schattenspiel (GER 1919)

 

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

 

Ambrosio: Frame characteristics / features of margins. View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: Didone abbandonata (ITA 1910, Luigi Maggi)

 

Cines: Edge marks: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

 

Cines: Frame characteristics / features of margins: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: Didone abbandonata (ITA 1910, Luigi Maggi)

 

Cines: Title styles: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

Cines: Serial numbers: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

View Image in Gallery: I corazzieri italiani (ITA 1910)

 

Eclair: Edge marks: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

 

Eclair: Title styles: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

 

Eclair: Serial numbers: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Comment le soleil se couche (FRA 1913)

 

Kodak: Edge codes: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

View Image in Gallery: Grass. A Nation’s Battle for Life (USA 1925, Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, Marguerite Harrison)

 

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

View Image in Gallery: Malombra (ITA 1917, Carmine Gallone)

 

Messter: Title styles: View Quote on Page: Edge Codes and Identification

View Images in Gallery: Richard Wagner (DE 1913, Carl Froelich)

Measurements

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

See the specific sample from which the spectra were measured.

 

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

See the specific sample from which the spectra were measured.

 

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Absorbances measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Multispectral acquisition in condensed and diffuse illumination. For both light configurations, absorbances of deep blue toning and pink tinting (left) and colorimetric images (right). Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

See the specific sample from which the spectra were measured.

Restoration

Aubert, Michelle (1992): Pour une déontologie de la restauration des films en couleur. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 25–28, on pp. 26–27. (in French) View Quote

Berriatúa, Luciano (1998): Regarding a Catalogue of the Tints Used on the Silent Screen. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 135-139. View Quote

Boarini, Vittorio (1992): La couleur dans le cinéma muet. Des techniques anciennes pour une restauration moderne. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 33–36, on pp. 34–36. (in French) View Quote

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 8. (in German) View Quote

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Richard Abel (ed.): Silent Film. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp. 27-30. View Quote

Christensen, Thomas C. (2002): Restoring a Danish Silent Film. In: Dan Nissen, Lisbeth Richter Larsen, Thomas C. Christensen and Jesper Stub Johnsen (eds.): Preserve Then Show. Copenhagen: Danish Film Institute, pp. 138-145. View Quote

Christensen, Thomas C. (2009): Restoration of Danish Silent Films – in Colour. In: Film History: An International Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 180-183. Link to downlad on Muse.

Desmet, Noël; Read, Paul (1998): The Desmetcolor Method for Restoring Tinted and Toned Films. In: Luciano Berriatúa, Manlio Brusatin, Noël Desmet, Enrico Fornaroli, Giovanna Fossati, Bertrand Lavedrine, Bob Mabberley, Nicola Mazzanti, Ruggero Pierantoni, Paul Read and Sonja Snoek: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizione Diabasis, pp. 147–150. View Quote

Farinelli, Nicola; Mazzanti, Gian Luca (2001): Il restauro. Metodo e tecnica. In: Gian Piero Brunetta (ed.): Storia del cinema mondiale. Vol. 5. Teorie, strumenti, memorie. Bologna: Einaudi, pp. 1119–1174, on p. 1147 View Quote and on p. 1169. (in Italian) View Quote

Flueckiger, Barbara (2015): Color Analysis for the Digital Restoration of Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari. In: Joshua Yumibe (ed.): Moving Image, 15/1, pp. 22-43 (peer-reviewed) Link to download.

Fossati, Giovanna (1996): How to Live with Simulated Colours (and Be Happy). In: Daan Hertogs et al.: Disorderly Order. Colours in Silent Film. The 1995 Amsterdam Workshop. Amsterdam: Stichding Nederlands Filmmuseum. Download

Fossati, Giovanna (2013): Obsolescence and Film Restoration: The Case of Colored Silent Films. In:  Cécile Dazord and Marie-Hélène Breuil (eds.): Conserver l’art contemporain à l’ère de l’obsolescence technologique, TECHNE Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, pp. 102-106. Download

Fossati, Giovanna (2015): The Archival Life of Early Color Films. Restoration and Presentation. In: Tom Gunning, Josh Yumibe, Giovanna Fossati and Jonathon Rosen (eds.): Fantasia of Color in Early Cinema. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 41-53.

Genaitay, Sonia; Dixon, Bryony (2010): Early Colour Film Restoration at the BFI National Archive. In: Journal of British Cinema and Television, 7,1, pp. 131-146.

Gunning, Tom (2013): Where Do Colors Go at Night? In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 81–92, on pp. 82–86. View Quote

Hertogs, Daan; De Klerk, Nico (1996): Disorderly Order. Colours in Silent Film. The 1995 Amsterdam Workshop. Amsterdam: Stichding Nederlands Filmmuseum, on pp. 6-7 View Quote, on pp. 12-14 View Quote, on pp. 18-19 View Quote, on pp. 23-25 View Quote, on pp. 71-76 View Quote and on pp. 87-88. View Quote

Kelly, Sean D. (2012): A Dyeing Art. Research and Documentation as Means of Authenticity in Applied Colour Restoration. (= Master Thesis University of Amsterdam) Download

Kross, Annike (2006): Die Simulation von Filmfärbungen und -tonungen nach dem sogenannten Desmet Verfahren. Fachhochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin. [in German, diploma thesis]

Lameris, Bregt (2015): On the Restoration History of Colored Silent Films in Germany. An Interview with Martin Koerber. In: The Moving Image. 15 (1), S. 103–108. Link to download.

Mabberley, Bob; Read, Paul; Snoek, Sonja (1998): Recording and Reproducing the Original Tints and Tones of Quo Vadis. A Technical Case Study. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 151-155. View Quote

Mazzanti, Nicola (1998): The Colours of the Film d’Arte Italiana. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 141-146. View Quote

Read, Paul (1998): Tinting and Toning Techniques and their Adaption for the Restoration of Archive Film. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al. (eds.): Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Diabasis, pp. 157‒167, on pp. 160‒161 View Quote, on p. 163 View Quote and on pp. 164–166. View Quote

Read, Paul (2009): Digital Restoration and Digital Desmet. In: Film History, 21,1, pp. 27, 28. View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Original Tinting and Toning Techniques and their Adaptation for the Restoration of Archive Film. In: Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture Film, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 271-280. View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Using the Original Tinting or Toning Technique on Modern Print Stock. In: Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture Film, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 193-194. View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Recording and Reproducing the Original Tints and Tones of Quo Vadis (1912): A Technical Case Study. In: Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture Film, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 281-286. View Quote

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): The Desmet Method for Restoring Tinted and Toned Films. In: Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture Film, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 287-290. View Quote

Ruedel, Ulrich; Currò, Daniela; Op den Kamp, Claudy (2012): Towards a More Accurate Preservation of Color. Heritage, Research and the Film Restoration Laboratory. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street, Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York: Routledge, 2012, pp. 219-229. Download

Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on p. 20. View Quote

Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 33–34. (in German) View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Herbert G. Ponting’s Materials and Texts. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 230–242, on pp. 230–240. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Giovanna Fossati. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 228–235, on pp. 229–235. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. João S. De Oliveira, Hon. FBKS. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 171–185, on pp. 175–185. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Paolo Cherchi Usai. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 208–218, on pp. 215–218. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Ulrich Rüdel and Daniela Currò. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 219–227, on pp. 221–226. View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Anonymous (1911): Toning and Tinting as an Adjunct to the Picture. In: Moving Picture World, 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574. View Quote

Anonymous (1920): La tecnica del Cinema si perfeziona. In: La Vita Cinematografica, 31–32, 7–15 settembre 1920, p. 70 published in Grifo, Marco (2006): Dal film colorato al cinema a colori. In: Michele Canosa, Giulia Carluccio and Federica Villa (eds.): Cinema muto italiano. Tecnica e tecnologia. Volume primo. Roma: Carocci, pp. 195–196. (in Italian) View Quote

Coustet, Ernest (1921): Le cinéma. Paris: Librairie Hachette, on p. 6 View Quote and on pp. 160-162. (in French) View Quote

Fossati, Giovanna (1998): When Cinema Was Coloured. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 121-132, on pp. 126-131. View Quote

Ramsaye, Terry (1919): Color Photography and the Motion Picture. In: Photoplay 15, March 1919, pp. 84, 86, on p. 86. View Quote

Rühl, Richard (1923): Virage. In: Film-Kurier, 12.2.1923. (in German) View Quote


 

The King of Kings (USA 1927, Cecil B. DeMille; H. B. Warner; Dorothy Cumming; Ernest Torrence; Joseph Schildkraut):
Anonymous (1926): The King of Kings. In: Variety, 31 December 1926. View Quote
Full text on the Variety website. View Link


 

The Phantom of the Opera (USA 1925, Rupert Julian):
Barr, Al (1925): A Duplex Report on The Phantom. In: Exhibitors Herald, XXII,12, Sep., p. 52. View Quote

Benson, Sally (1925): The Screen in Review. Expensive and Everything. In: Picture-Play Magazine, XXIII,4, Dec., p. 59. View Quote

Hall, Mordaunt (1925): The Screen. A Fantastic Melodrama. In: The New York Times, 7 September 1925, p. 15. View Quote
Full text on The New York Times website. View Link


 

The Ten Commandments (USA 1923, Cecil B. DeMille):
Anonymous (1923): The Screen. In: New York Times, 22 December 1923, p. 8. View Quote

Anonymous (1924): The Ten Commendations of The Ten Commandments. In: Variety, LXXIII,7, Jan., p. 69. View Quote

Anonymous (1924): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. The Ten Commandments. In: Photoplay, XXV,3, Feb., p. 62. View Quote

Selected Analyses

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, audiences, and (dis)continuity in the ‘cinema of the second period’ In: Film History, 21,1, 2009, pp. 67-93. [Analysis of Italian art films]


 

The Affairs of Anatol (USA 1921, Cecil B. DeMille):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 89–93. View Quote


 

Der Aufstieg (GER 1926, Walter Ruttmann):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 126–127. View Quote


 

Ballet mécanique (FRA 1923, Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 185–189. View Quote


 

Cabiria (ITA 1914, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 71.) (in Italian) View Quote


 

Carnevalesca (ITA 1918, Amleto Palermi):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 79–82. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (GER 1919, Robert Wiene):
Flueckiger, Barbara (2015 ): Color Analysis for the Digital Restoration of Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari. In: Joshua Yumibe (ed.): Moving Image, 15/1, pp. 22-43 (peer-reviewed) Link to download

Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 180–183. View Quote


 

Downhill (GBR 1927, Alfred Hitchcock) (sequence):
Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on pp. 19–20. View Quote


 

Giochi di prestigio (Fregoli in palcoscenico) or Fregoli Prestigiatore (ITA 1897-1899, Leopoldo Fregoli) (sequences):
Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 12–14.) (in Italian) View Quote


 

Der heilige Berg (GER 1926, Arnold Fanck):
Quaresima, Leonardo (1992): Arnold Fanck. Avantgardist. Der heilige Berg. In: Hans-Michael Bock and Michael Töteberg (eds.): Das Ufa-Buch. Kunst und Krisen, Stars und Regisseure, Wirtschaft und Politik. Die internationale Geschichte von Deutschlands grösstem Film-Konzern. Frankfurt a.M.: Zweitausendeins, pp. 250–255, on pp. 250–251. (in German) View Quote


 

Il fuoco (ITA 1915, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 72–73. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Körkarlen (SWE 1921, Victor Sjöström):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 31–32. (in German) View Quote


 

L’Atlantide/Queen of Atlantis (FRA/BEL 1921, Jacques Feyder) (sequences):
De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31, on pp. 30–31. (in French) View Quote


 

L’Inhumaine (FRA 1923, Marcel L’Herbier):
Pol van der, Gerwin; Dibbets, Karel (1996): The Logic of Colour in L’Inhumaine. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 155–163. View Quote

Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 193–194. View Quote


 

La poule aux œufs d’or (FRA 1905, Gaston Velle):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 43–47. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Lonesome (USA 1928, Paul Fejos):
Yumibe, Joshua (2013): The Illuminated Fairytale. The Colors of Paul Fejo’s Lonesome (1928). In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 127–137. View Quote


 

Maudite soit la guerre (BEL 1914, Alfred Machin):
Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Color. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, on pp. 130–131. View Quote


 

Napoléon (FRA 1927, Abel Gance):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on p. 35. (in German) View Quote


 

Rapsodia satanica (ITA 1917, Nino Oxilia):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 76–79. (in Italian) View Quote


 

The Glorious Adventure (GB 1922, J. Stuart Blackton):
Brown, Simon; Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (2013): Colour Adventures with Prizma and Claude Friese-Greene in the 1920s. In: British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 22-36, on pp. 22-32. View Quote


 

The Great White Silence (GBR 1924, Herbert G. Ponting):
Watkins, Liz (2013): Herbert G. Ponting’s Materials and Texts. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 230–242, on pp. 233–235. View Quote


 

The Lodger. A Story of the London Fog (GBR 1927, Alfred Hitchcock):
Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2013): The Temporalities of Intermediality. Colour in Cinema and the Arts of the 1920s. In: Early Popular Visual Culture, 11,2, May, pp. 140–157, on pp. 152-154. View Quote

Street, Sarah; Yumibe, Joshua (2019): Chromatic Modernity. Color, Cinema, and Media of the 1920s. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 213–216. View Quote


 

The Lonedale Operator (USA 1911, D. W. Griffith):
Uricchio, William (1996): Reflections on Color. The Possibilities for Dramatic Articulation in The Lonedale Operator. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 191-198.  View Quote

Stokes, Melvyn (2009): Colour in American Cinema. From The Great Train Robbery to Bonnie and Clyde. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 184–192, on p. 185. View Quote


 

The Phantom of the Opera (USA 1925, Rupert Julian):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 31–33. (in German) View Quote


 

The Son of the Sheik (USA 1926, George Fitzmaurice):
Traber, Bodo (1995): Dramaturgische Funktionen monochromer Farbgebung im Stummfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 30–36, on pp. 32–35. (in German) View Quote


 

The Ten Commandments (USA 1923, Cecil B. DeMille):
Birchard, Robert S. (1992): The Ten Commandments (1923). DeMille Completes Personal Exodus. In: American Cinematographer, 73,10, pp. 76–80, on pp. 76–77. View Quote

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on pp. 99–102. View Quote


 

Tigre reale (ITA 1916, Giovanni Pastrone):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 73–74. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Werther (FRA 1938, Max Ophüls):

Amiel, Vincent (1992): Couleurs d’Ophuls. In: Yann Tobin: Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on p. 139.) (in French) View Quote


 

Zweimal Gelebt (GER 1912, Max Mack):
De Kuyper, Eric (1992): La beauté du diable. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 29–31, on p. p. 30. (in French) View Quote