Kodachrome Two-color 1915, after 1930 renamed Fox Nature Color
The Kodachrome process was invented by John G. Capstaff in 1913 for still photography and subsequently adapted to motion pictures. For the process two frames were advanced simultaneously, one located above the other. The light passed either through two lenses or through a beam-splitter, fitted with red and green filters. From the camera negative a master-positive was produced on an optical printer. During this step, optical problems caused by the arrangement were also corrected. The release print was exposed through a beam-splitter whereby the alternate frames were projected onto either side of double-coated stock. After development by a usual b/w process, the film was tanned to harden the exposed areas. The soft areas were dyed red-orange and blue-green respectively.
Due to the loss of light caused by the filters and by the optical set-up, the speed of the process was rather low.
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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources
Anonymous (1916): The Kodachrome Process. In: The British Journal of Photography, Colour Supplement, 10, p. 234and 485.
Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!” Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 41–42. (in German)
Busch, L. (1930): Das Kodachrome-Verfahren. In: Die Kinotechnik, 12,11, Jun., pp. 312–313. (in German)
Dr. N. (1937): Mehrschichten-Film. In: Film-Kurier, 27.8.1937, Serie “Farb-Film-Fibel”. (in German)
Eggert, John (1932): Kurzer Überblick über den Stand der Farbenkinematographie. In: Bericht über den VIII. Internationalen Kongress für wissenschaftliche und angewandte Photographie, Dresden 1931. Leipzig: J. A. Barth, pp. 214–221, on pp. 215–218. (in German)
Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, pp. 14.
Koshofer, Gert (1996): Early Colorfilm Processes for the Cinema. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, p. 43.
Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on p. 59, on pp. 61–62 , on p. 63 and on p. 180.
Matthews, Glenn E. (1930): A Motion Picture Made in 1916 by a Two-Color Subtractive Process. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 15,5, 1930, pp. 624-626.
Mees, C.E. Kenneth (1929): The Processes of Color Photography. III. Color Cinematography. In: The Journal of Chemical Education, 6, pp. 44–51, on p. 48.
Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., p. 152.
Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 66 ff.
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 129. (in Italian)
Anonymous (1926): Ein Farbenfilm nach dem Kodachrome-Verfahren. In: Die Kinotechnik, 8,10, p. 270. (in German)
Kaleidoscope (GBR 1935, Len Lye):
Horrocks, Roger (2001): Len Lye. A Biography. Auckland University Press., on pp. 142–143.