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Kodacolor / Keller-Dorian Color

Description

“LENTICULAR PROCESS

In 1896 R. E. Liesegang (Ahriman, 1896) suggested a photographic color process based upon the use of banded filters in the camera aperture.

[…]

In 1909 R. Berthon (British Patent 10,611; see also Berthon, 1910a, b) patented a process similar to that suggested by Liesegang, except that minute images of the camera aperture were formed by tiny ‘lenses’ on the film rather than by openings in a screen attached to the film. The lenses can be spherical or cylindrical. If the lenses are cylindrical, the filters over the camera lens can be strips parallel to the embossing on the film. […] The effect produced by such a system is similar to that obtained with a screen plate process in which the filter elements are in contact with the emulsion. Thus the embossed film process may be considered an ‘optical screen plate’ process.

[…] Light originating at a small area of the object reaches the lens and is focused on a small area on the film. As shown in the diagram, of the light striking the top one-third of the lens, only the red components are allowed to pass; from the center third, only the green components; and for the low third, only the blue components. The embossings on the film serve as tiny lenses and have curvatures such that light from any small area in the filter will be focused on a corresponding area in the emulsion. This gives tiny images of the three filters under each section of each of the embossings. As the light reaching each such section comes from a single area in the subject photographed, separate records of the red, green, and blue exposures are obtained.

Ryan_Evans_Kodacolor_2

FIG. 8.9 Diagrammatic sketch tracing light-beam paths in lenticular processes.
The film is developed by reversal, and light is projected through it and through filters similar to those used in the taking process. The optical path of the light through the system is now reversed. The embossings serve as lenses for focusing the light from the portions of the film which have densities corresponding to the red, green, and blue exposures onto the red, green, and blue sections of the filter. The projection lens focuses the film image onto a screen, and a picture in color is obtained.

The first commercial lenticular film was marketed by the Eastman Kodak Company in 1928 (Mees, 1929a, pp. 10-17; 1929c). It was called Kodacolor and sold as 16-mm motion-picture film. A short time later the I. G. Farbenindustrie marketed a similar product. Both these products were later discontinued.”

(Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley, pp. 291-293.)










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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Anonymous (1948): Eastman, Technicolor Sued by Keller-Dorian. $300 Million. In: International Projectionist, XXIII,12, Dec., p. 34. View Quote

Anonymous (1951): The Magic of Color. In: International Projectionist, XXVI,7, Jul., pp. 5–9, 33–34. View Quote

Busch, L. (1928): Der Kodacolorfilm. In: Die Kinotechnik, 10,22, Nov., pp. 592–594. (in German) View Quote

Capstaff, J. G.; Seymour, M.W. (1928): The Kodacolor Process for Amateur Color Cinematography. In: Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 12, pp. 940—947. View Quote

Capstaff, J. G.; Miller, O.E.; Wilder, L.S. (1937): The Projection of Lenticular Color Films. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 28,1, pp. 123–135. View PDF

Davies, E. R. (1936): The Kodachrome Process of 16 mm. Colour Kinematography. In: The Photographic Journal, 76, pp. 248–253, on pp. 248–249. View Quote

E.P. 295,995; E.P. 382,974; E.P. 388,062; E.P. 411,407; E.P. 483,319; E.P. 489,529; FP. 521533 (1920)

Eastman Kodak Company (1928): Instructions For Taking Kodacolor Pictures.

Eastman Kodak Company (1928): The Eastman Kodak Company presents Kodacolor. Amateur Motion Pictures in full Color are Here. In: Movie Makers. The Magazine of the Amateur Cinema League, Inc., III,8, Aug.

Eastman Kodak Company (1929): If I could only take Colors as they actually are! In: Movie Makers. The Magazine of the Amateur Cinema League, Inc., IV,3, Mar., pp. 170–171.

Eastman Kodak Company (1929): Kodacolor. Home Movies in Full Color. Gives New Beauty to Close-ups. In: Movie Makers. The Magazine of the Amateur Cinema League, Inc., IV,4, Apr., pp. 238–239.

MacKay, Herbert C. (1929): Reeling the Rainbow. A Discussion Of Motion Pictures In Natural Color. In: Movie Makers. The Magazine of the Amateur Cinema League, Inc., IV,8, Aug., pp. 509–511, 538.

Eastman Kodak Company (1929): Kodacolor. Home Movies in Full Color. In: Movie Makers. The Magazine of the Amateur Cinema League, Inc., V,9, Sep., pp. 624, 642.

Eastman Kodak Company (Rochester, NY) (1933): This Summer The New Kodacolor Really Comes Into Its Own. In: Ciné-Kodak News, 9,2, Jul., pp. 1–3.

Secondary Sources

Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!” Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 40–41. (in German) View Quote

Anonymous (1928): Kodacolor Makes Its Bow. New Colour Process Demonstrated. In: The Bioscope, 1140,LXXVI, Aug., p. 13. View Quote

Beyer, Friedemann; Koshofer, Gert; Krüger, Michael (2010): UFA in Farbe. Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, on p. 46. (in German) View Quote

Brune, Wolfgang (1954): Ein altes farbenfotografisches Verfahren unter neuen Gesichtspunkten. In: Bild und Ton, 7,10, pp. 293–295. (in German) View Quote

Coote, Jack H. (1993): The Illustrated History of Colour Photography. Surbiton, Surrey: Fountain Press, on pp. 157–163. View Quote

Dr. N. (1937): Linsenraster. In: Film-Kurier, 183, 2.8.1937, Serie “Farb-Film-Fibel”. (in German) View Quote

Eggert, John (1932): Kurzer Überblick über den Stand der Farbenkinematographie. In: John Eggert and Arpad von Biehler: Bericht über den VIII. Internationalen Kongress für wissenschaftliche und angewandte Photographie, Dresden 1931, Leipzig: J. A. Barth, pp. 214–222, on pp. 220–221. (in German) View Quote

Eggert, John; Heymer, Gerd (1937): Der Stand der Farbenphotographie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, pp. 7–28, on pp. 15–17 View Quote and on pp. 26–28. (in German) View Quote

Evans, Ralph Merrill; Hanson, W.T., Jr.; Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley, pp. 291–293. View Quote

Gordon, Marsha (2013): Lenticular Spectacles. Kodacolor’s Fit in the Amateur Arsenal. In: Film History, 25,4, pp. 36–61. View Link

Heymer, Gerd (1931): Interferenzerscheinungen an Linsenrasterfilmen. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 2, pp. 111–117. View Quote

Heymer, Gerd (1933): Auflösungsvermögen und Farbwiedergabe in der Farbrasterphotographie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 3, pp. 188–207. View Quote

Heymer, Gerd (1935): Wesen und Anwendung des Linsenrasterfilms. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 4, pp. 151–176. View Quote

Lavedrine, Bertrand (1998): History and Technology of Colour Photographic Processes. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 117–119, on p. 119. View Quote

Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1929): Amateur Cinematography and the Kodacolor Process. In: The Journal of the Franklin Institute, 207, pp. 1–17. View Quote

Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1929): The Processes of Color Photography. Part IV. The Kodacolor Process. The Journal of Chemical Education, 6(2), pp. 286–291. View Quote

Mitchell, Robert A. (1951): Is Lenticulated Color-Film Practical? In: International Projectionist, XXVI,10, Oct, pp. 5–9, 29–30. View PDF

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17–24, on p. 21. (in French) View Quote

Reuteler, Joakim; Gschwind, Rudolf (2014): Die Farben des Riffelfilms. Digitale Farbrekonstruktion von Linsenrasterfilm. In: Rundbrief Fotografie, 81,82, pp. 37–41.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 52-56. View Quote

Tepperman, Charles (2013): Color Unlimited. Amateur Color Cinema in the 1930s. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 138–149, on pp. 138–145. View Quote

Restoration

Anonymous (1964): Technical Digest. In: The British Journal of Photography, 111,10. Apr., p. 291. View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Anonymous (1928): New Colour Process. Kodacolor for Amateurs. In: The Bioscope, 1140,LXXVI, Aug., p. v. View Quote

Selected Analyses

Studies in Blue and Chartres Cathedral (1932, John Hansen):
Tepperman, Charles (2013): Color Unlimited. Amateur Color Cinema in the 1930s. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 138–149, on p. 142. View Quote