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Eastman Color

Description

“The Eastman Colour Films are multilayer films of the type in which the layers are not separated after exposure. Films of this class are known as Multilayer, Monopack or Integral Tripack. “Multilayer” is descriptive not only of this particular group of films, but also those in which the layers may be separated after exposure, while “Monopack” is liable to be associated with a particular process which has been quite widely employed by Technicolor. “Integral Tripack” is therefore adopted as the most convenient term for describing the Eastman Colour Films.

Three types of Eastman Colour Film are manufactured. These are the Colour Negative Film, intended for use as the picture negative material in the camera; the Colour lnternegative Film, used for a similar purpose to black-and-white duplicating negative film; and Colour Print Film, which may be employed in preparing prints from either the Colour Negative or Colour lnternegative. A special black-and-white Separation Positive Film is also provided and this is intended for use in preparing three separation positives from the Colour Negative. The separation positives form an intermediate link with the Colour Negative when making a Colour Internegative, so that their function is similar to that of a master positive in a black-and-white system.

Integral tripack camera films have the advantage that they may be used in a standard black-and-white camera, and apart from a check on the colour correction and focus of the lens, no special precautions are necessary. It is of interest to note that the colours of integral tripack negatives, as well as the densities, are reversed compared with the original scene.

The coloured images in Eastman Colour Films are produced by a method known as dye-coupling development. For this a special developing agent is used in conjunction with a second compound known as the colourforming coupler. Photographic development is a process of chemical reduction brought about by the developing agent, which is oxidized in proportion to the amount of silver formed. The oxidized developing agent combines with the colour forming coupler to create a dye of appropriate colour, the concentration of which is proportional to the amount of silver in the image. The dye thus formed must be insoluble in water so that the reaction shall be quite local and a dye image of high resolution obtained. The silver image is removed at a later stage of the process.

Three colour-forming couplers provide the appropriate dyes and are incorporated in the relevant emulsion layers.”

(Craig, G.J. (1953): Eastman Colour Films for Professional Motion Picture Work. In: British Kinematography, 22,5, 1953, pp. 146-158.)









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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Craig, G.J. (1953): Eastman Colour Films for Professional Motion Picture Work. In: British Kinematography, 22,5, 1953, pp. 146-158. View Quote

Foster, Frederick (1953): Eastman Negative-Positive Color Films for Motion Pictures. In: American Cinematographer, 34,7, July 1953, pp. 322-333, 348. View Quote

Hanson, Wesley T., Jr. (1950): Color Correction with Colored Couplers. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America, 40,3, 1950, pp. 166–171, on p. 166. View Quote

Hanson, Wesley T. (1955): Subtractive Color Photography. Spectral Sensitivities and Masks. In: Journal of the Optical Society of America, 45, 1955, pp. 476-481. View Quote

Horowitz, Paul; Weller, William R. (1958): Some Considerations of Eastman Color Print Film Dye Stability. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 67,6, pp. 401–404. View Quote

Keene, G. T.; Clifford, J. D. (1962): Commercial Systems for Making 8mm Prints. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 71,6, pp. 447–449. View Quote

Smits, J.; Corluy, H.; De Kerf, J. (1966): Farbmetrische Analyse fotografischer Farbwiedergabe-Verfahren. In: Die Farbe, 15, 1966, pp. 102-118. (in German)  View Quote

Young, Freddie (1966): A method of Pre-exposing Color Negative for Subtle Effect. In: American Cinematographer, 47,8, Aug. 1966, p. 537. View Quote

Secondary Sources

Andrew, Dudley (1980): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 47. View Quote

Anonymous (1956): Current Techniques of 35mm Color Film Photography and Printing. In: American Cinematographer, 37,1, January 1956, pp. 26-27 and p. 58. View Quote

Anonymous (1980): Colour Problem. In: Sight and Sound, 50, pp. 12–13, on pp. 12–13 View Quote and on p. 13. View Quote

Batistová, Anna (2013): Glorious Agfacolor, Breathtaking Totalvision and Monophonic Sound. Colour and “Scope” in Czechoslovakia. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 47-55. View Quote

Behlmer, Rudy (1964): Technicolor. In: Films in Review, 15,6, pp. 333–351, on pp. 350–351. View Quote

Bergala, Alain (1995): La couleur, la Nouvelle Vague et ses maîtres des années cinquante. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Milan: Mazzotta, pp. 126–136, on p. 129 View Quote and p. 131. (in French) View Quote

Berthomé, Jean-Pierre (1992): Nestor Almendros. In: Yann Tobin: Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on p. 158. (in French) View Quote

Beyer, Friedemann; Koshofer, Gert; Krüger, Michael (2010): UFA in Farbe. Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, on p. 54. (in German) View Quote

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 9. (in German) View Quote

Bordwell, David; Staiger, Janet; Thompson, Kristin (1985): The Classical Hollywood Cinema. Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. London: Routledge, on p. 357. View Quote

Cooper, Alf; Lawson, Alan; Littlejohn, Frank (2013): Interview. Bernard Happé. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 131–138, on pp. 133–136. View Quote

Coote, Jack H. (1993): The Illustrated History of Colour Photography. Surbiton, Surrey: Fountain Press, on p. 156 , on p. 160 View Quote, on p. 161 View Quote, on pp. 163–164 View Quote and on pp. 175–176. View Quote

Cubitt, Sean (2014): The Practice of Light. A Genealogy of Technologies from Prints to Pixels. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: MIT Press, on p. 135. View Quote

Déribéré, Maurice (1954): Les problèmes du cinéma en couleurs français. In: Technique Cinématographique, 25,145, pp. 185–189. (in French) View Quote

Everett, Wendy (2007): Mapping Colour. An Introduction to the Theories and Practices of Colour. In: Wendy Everett (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 7–38, on p. 22. View Quote

Finler, Joel (1992): De Becky Sharp à Lola Montès. Comment la couleur vint au cinéma, entre 1935 et 1955. In: Yann Tobin (1992): Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on p. 132. (in French) View Quote

Hanson, Wesley T. (1981): The Evolution of Eastman Color Motion Pictures. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 90,9, 1981, pp. 791-794. View Quote

Happé, Bernard (1984): 80 Years of Colour Cinematography. London: British Kinematograph Sound & Television Society, on p. 16. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2013): Chromo-Drama. Innovation and Convention in Douglas Sirk’s Color Designs. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 170–178. View Quote

Kisner, W. I. (1962): A New Color Negative Film for Better Picture Quality. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 71,10, pp. 776–779. View Quote

Kisner, W. I. (1962): A Higher Speed Color Print Film. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 71,10, pp. 779–781. View Quote

Kitsopanidou, Kira (2009): “Glorious Technicolor”. La stratégie d’innovation de la couleur de Technicolor dans l’industrie cinématographique Américaine. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 193–206, on pp. 200–203. (in French) View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on p. 1 View Quote, on pp. 6–7 View Quote, on pp. 7–8. View Quote and on pp. 8–13. View Quote

Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on p. 163 View Quote, on p. 164 View Quote and on pp. 165–167. View Quote

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on p. 20 View Quote and on pp. 21-22. View Quote

Parker, David L. (1973): ‘Blazing Technicolor,’ ‘Stunning Trucolor,’ and ‘Shocking Eastmancolor.’ In: Tom Shales et al. (ed.): The American Film Heritage, The American Film Institute. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books Ltd., pp. 19-27. View Quote

Penning, Lars (1988): Farbe im klassischen Piratenfilm. In: Karl-Dietmar Möller-Nass, Hasko Schneider and Hans J. Wulff (eds.): 1. Film- und Fernsehwissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Münster: MAkS, pp. 36–40, on p. 38. (in German) View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013a): Interview. Douglas Slocombe. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 90–93, on pp. 91–93. View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013b): Interview. Guy Green. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 83–87, on pp. 85–87. View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013c): Interview. Stan Sayer. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 97–102, on pp. 99–102.

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 161 View Quote, on pp. 191–192 View Quote, on p. 199 View Quote, on p. 201 View Quote, on pp. 207–208 View Quote, on p. 209 View Quote and on pp. 216–218. (in Italian) View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on pp. 166–167. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 21-24. (in French) View Quote

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, on pp. 148-158. View Quote

Stokes, Melvyn (2009): Colour in American Cinema. From The Great Train Robbery to Bonnie and Clyde. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 184–192, on p. 187. View Quote

Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Christopher Challis. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 10–30, on pp. 11–26. View Quote

Tessier, Max (1992): De la couleur dans les films japonais. In: Yann Tobin: Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on pp. 152–154. (in French) View Quote

Webers, Johannes; Westendorp, Kurt (1979): Einführung in die Kopierwerktechnik (XIII). In: Fernseh- und Kinotechnik, 33,6, pp. 213–215. (in German) View Quote

Measurements

Dyes’ absorbances extracted with a statistical method from multispectral image capture. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

Restoration

Anonymous (1980): Colour Problem. In: Sight and Sound, 50, pp. 12–13, on p. 12. View Quote

Gitt, Robert; Dayton, Richard (1984): Restoring Becky Sharp. In: American Cinematographer, 65,10, pp. 99–106, on pp. 101–106. View Quote

Drössler, Stefan (2004): Lola Montez. In neuem Licht. In: Christine Rüffert (ed.): ZeitSprünge. Wie Filme Geschichte(n) erzählen. Berlin: Bertz, pp. 170–185, on p. 171 View Quote, on pp. 173–176 View Quote and on pp. 182–183. (in German) View Quote

Magid, Ron (1997): Renewing the Star Wars Sequels. In: American Cinematographer, 78,4, pp. 58–68, on pp. 58–59. View Quote

Magid, Ron (1997): An Expanded Universe. Digital and analog special effects collide in the stooled version of Star Wars. In: American Cinematographer, 78,2, pp. 60–70, on pp. 64–68. View Quote

Magid, Ron (1997): Saving the Star Wars Saga. In: American Cinematographer, 78,2, pp. 55–59, on pp. 55–59. View Quote

O’Connell, Bill (1979): Fade Out. In: Film Comment, 15,5, pp. 11-18. View Quote

Scorsese, Martin (1980): Letter. In: Film Comment, 16,1, 1980, p. 79. View Quote

Spehr, Paul C. (1979): Fading, Fading, Faded. The Colour Film in Crisis. In: American Film, Nov., pp. 56–61. View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Ashton, George (1954): Colour at the Cinema. In: The British Journal of Photography, 101, 25 June 1954, pp. 324–325, on p. 324 View Quote, on pp. 324–325 View Quote, on p. 325 View Quote and on p. 325. View Quote

Brown, Simon; Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (eds.) (2013): Interview. Dave Davis. In: British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 123–130, on pp. 125–127. View Quote

Dupar, Edwin B. (1952): Warnercolor. Newest of Color Film Process. In: American Cinematographer, 33,9, pp. 384–385. View Quote

Selected Analyses

A Man and a Woman (FRA 1966, Claude Lelouch):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 193–194. View Quote


 

Alien (USA 1979, Ridley Scott):
Vanlint, Derek (1979): Alien and its photographic Challenges. In: American Cinematographer, 60,8, pp. 768–771, 806, 812–813, on pp. 768–769 View Quote and on pp. 806, 812. View Quote


 

Blade Runner (USA 1982, Ridley Scott):
Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 141–146. View Quote

Bruno, Giuliana (2002): Ramble City. Postmoderne und Blade Runner. In: Die Postmoderne im Kino. Ein Reader. Marburg: Schüren, pp. 65–79. (in German)

Carmichael, Jae (1982): Lighting and Production Design. In: American Cinematographer, 63,11, pp. 1156–1161, on p. 1157. View Quote

Dryer, David (1982): Blade Runner. Special Photographic Effects. In: American Cinematographer, 63,7, pp. 692–693, 725–732, on pp. 692–693. View Quote

Lightman, Herb A.; Patterson, Richard (1982): Blade Runner. Production Design and Photography. In: American Cinematographer, 63,7, pp. 684–687, 715–725, on pp. 720–723. View Quote


 

Blood Feast (USA 1963, Herschell Gordon Lewis):
Al Salti, Nadia (2009): Le rouge sang du nouvel Hollywood. Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch, The Big Save. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 417–425, on pp. 419–420. (in French) View Quote


 

Blow-up (GBR 1966, Michelangelo Antonioni):
Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 92–95. View Quote


 

Bonnie and Clyde (USA 1967, Arthur Penn):
Al Salti, Nadia (2009): Le rouge sang du nouvel Hollywood. Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch, The Big Save. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 417–425, on pp. 417–425. (in French) View Quote


 

Cabaret (USA 1972, Bob Fosse):
Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 197–198. View Quote


 

Das Boot (GER 1981, Wolfgang Petersen):
Block, Bruce A. (1983): Oscar Nominees for Cinematography Das Boot. In: American Cinematographer, 64,4, pp. 64–66, on pp. 64–66. View Quote


 

Days of Heaven (USA 1978, Terrence Malick):
Almendros, Nestor (1979): Photographing Days of Heaven. In: American Cinematographer, 60,6, pp. 562–565, 592–594, 626–632, on pp. 564–565 View Quote, on pp. 627–628 View Quote and on pp. 630–631. View Quote

Almendros, Nestor (2000): Days of Heaven. Terrence Malick. 1976. In: John Orr and Olga Taxidou (eds.): Post-War Cinema and Modernity. A Film Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 234–246, on pp. 235–236 View Quote and on pp. 242–246. View Quote

Anonymous (1999): Days of Heaven. In: American Cinematographer, 80,3, p. 134, on p. 134.View Quote

Ciment, Michel (2002): Terrence Malick’s Garden. Days of Heaven. In: Positif 50 years. Selections from the French film journal. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, pp. 195–201, on p. 179. View Quote

Misek, Richard (2010): Chromatic Cinema. A History of Screen Color. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, on pp. 133–134. View Quote


 

Deux ou trois choses que je sais d’elle (FRA 1966, Jean-Luc Godard):
Branigan, Edward (1976): The Articulation of Color in a Filmic System. Deux ou trois choses que je sais d’elle. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 170–182, on pp. 170–180. View Quote


 

Dial M for Murder (USA 1954, Alfred Hitchcock):
Allen, Richard (2006): Hitchcock’s Color Designs. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 131–144, on p. 135. View Quote

Jacobs, Steven (2013): Color and Containment. Domestic Spaces and Restrained Palettes in Hitchcock’s First Color Films. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 179–188, on pp. 179–187. View Quote


 

East of Eden (USA 1955, Elia Kazan):
Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on pp. 11–12. View Quote


 

Elvira Madigan (SWE 1967, Bo Widerberg):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 193–194. View Quote


 

Fantastic Voyage (USA 1966, Richard Fleischer):
Lightman, Herb A. (1966): The Cameraman becomes the Star of Fantastic Voyage. In: American Cinematographer, 47,2, pp. 98–101, 122–123, on p. 99 View Quote and on pp. 101, 122. View Quote


 

Jigokumon/Gate of Hell (JPN 1953, Teinosuke Kinugasa):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 192–193. View Quote


 

La Collectionneuse (FRA 1967, Éric Rohmer):
Handyside, Fiona (2013): Color and Meaning in the Films of Eric Rohmer. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street, Liz Watkins (eds.) Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 150–159, on p. 151. View Quote


 

La risaia (ITA 1955, Raffaello Matarazzo, Eastman Color negative, distributed in Ferraniacolor):
Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on pp. 192–194. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Le Bonheur (FRA 1965, Agnès Varda):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 193–194. View Quote


 

Les Parapluies de Cherbourg/The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (FRA 1964, Jacques Demy):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 193–194. View Quote


 

Lola Montès (FRA/BRD 1955, Max Ophüls):
André, Emanuelle (1995): La couleur douloureuse. Max Ophuls. Lola Montès. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 120–122. (in French) View Quote

Drössler, Stefan (2004): Lola Montez. In neuem Licht. In: Christine Rüffert (ed.): ZeitSprünge. Wie Filme Geschichte(n) erzählen. Berlin: Bertz, pp. 170–185, on pp. 181–183. (in German) View Quote

Galt, Rosalind (2011): Pretty. Film and the Decorative Image. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 172–176. View Quote


 

Lust for Life (USA 1956, Vincente Minnelli):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on p. 193. View Quote


 

Mon oncle (FRA/ITA 1958, Jacques Tati):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 223–224. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Offret/The Sacrifice (SWE/FRA/GBR 1986, Andrei Tarkovsky):
Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on pp. 167–171 View Quote and on pp. 174–175. View Quote


 

Pierrot le fou (FRA 1965, Jean-Luc Godard):
Branigan, Edward (1976): The Articulation of Color in a Filmic System. Deux ou trois choses que je sais d’elle. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 170–182, on p. 177. View Quote


 

Racconti romani (ITA 1955, Gianni Franciolini):
Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 210–212. (in Italian) View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on pp. 189–192. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Shin Heike monogatari (JPN 1955, Kenji Mizoguchi):
Tessier, Max (1992): De la couleur dans les films japonais. In: Yann Tobin: Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on pp. 152–153. (in French) View Quote


 

Stalker (SUN 1979, Andrei Tarkovsky):
Carrère, Emmanuel (2002): Third Dive Into the Ocean. Andrei Tarkovsky’s The Stalker. In: Positif 50 Years. Selections From the French Film Journal. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, pp. 205–215, on pp. 207–208 View Quote and on p. 210. View Quote

Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on pp. 166–171. View Quote


 

Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (USA 1977, George Lucas):
Anonymous (1977): Behind the Scenes of Star Wars. In: American Cinematographer, 58,7, pp. 698–701, 746–747, 762, on pp. 700–701. View Quote


 

Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back (USA 1980, Irvin Kershner):
Anonymous (1980): The Photography of Star Wars. The Empire Strikes Back. In: American Cinematographer, 61,6, pp. 548–551, 576–577, 615–620, on pp. 616–619. View Quote


 

Taxi Driver (USA 1976, Martin Scorsese)
Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 52–53. View Quote


 

The Last Emperor (FRA, ITA, GBR 1987, Bernardo Bertolucci):
Bergery, Benjamin (1989): Reflections 10. Storaro, ASC. In: American Cinematographer, 70,8, pp. 70–74, on pp. 70–73. View Quote


 

Track of the Cat (USA 1954, William A. Wellman):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on pp. 114–115.) (in French) View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on p. 11. View Quote


 

Two Thousand Maniacs! (USA 1964, Herschell Gordon Lewis):
Al Salti, Nadia (2009): Le rouge sang du nouvel Hollywood. Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch, The Big Save. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 417–425, on pp. 419–420. (in French) View Quote


 

Une femme est une femme (FRA/ITA 1961, Jean-Luc Godard):
Sharits, Paul (1966): Red, Blue, Godard. In: Film Quarterly, 19,4, 1966, pp. 24-29, on pp. 24-26. View Quote


 

Zerkalo/Mirror (SUN 1975, Andrei Tarkovsky):
Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on pp. 166–170. View Quote