Pinatype / Pinatypie


“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it could be used to transfer three individual dye images in register. The Hydrotype (1881) and the Pinatype (1905) were examples of the early use of this process. One of the notable, though not widely used, relief matrix processes was developed by Dr Arthur Traube and introduced in 1929 as the Uvatype, which was an improved version of his earlier Diachrome (1906) and dye mordant Ufachrome (1916) processes. The Eastman Wash-off Relief process (1935) was a refinement of the imbibition process that was replaced by the improved Dye Transfer process (1946-1993). The widest commercial application of the imbibition process was the Technicolor process, originally introduced as a two-color system in 1916, for producing motion-picture release prints.”

(Hirsch, Robert (2011): Exploring Color Photography. From Film to Pixels. Elsevier Focal Press: Oxford; Burlington, MA, p. 25.)

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Meister Lucius & Brüning (1905): Pinatypie. Positiv-Verfahren für die Dreifarbenphotographie. Höchst am Main.

Secondary Sources

Ede, François (2017): Les recherches sur le cinéma En ‘couleurs naturelles’ chez Pathé avant 1914. In: Stéphanie Salmon and Jacques Malthête (eds.): Recherches et innovations dans l’industrie du cinéma. Les cahiers des ingénieurs Pathé (1906–1927). Paris: Fondation Seydoux Pathé, pp. 211–223, on p. 215. (in French) View Quote

Evans, Ralph Merrill; Hanson, W.T., Jr.; Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley, p. 295. View Quote

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, pp. 462-463. View Quote

Koshofer, Gert (1981): Geschichte der Farbverfahren in der Spezialistenzeit. In: Joseph-Haubrich-Kunsthalle and Agfa-Gevaert Foto-Historama Leverkusen (eds.): Farbe im Photo. Die Geschichte der Farbenphotographie von 1861 bis 1981. Katalogbuch. Köln: Joseph-Haubrich-Kunsthalle. (in German) View Quote

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on p. 142. View Quote

Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1937): The Development of the Art and Science of Photography in the Twentieth Century. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 28,1, pp. 3–20, on pp. 5–6 View Quote and on p. 12. View Quote

Pénichon, Sylvie (2013): Twentieth Century Colour Photographs. The Complete Guide to Processes, Identification & Preservation. London, Los Angeles: Thames & Hudson, on pp. 131–133 View Quote and on pp. 149–150. View Quote

Ruivo, Céline (2013): Le Livre de fabrication de la compagnie générale des phonographes cinématographes et appareils de précision. À propos d’une source pour l’histoire des recherches sur la couleur chez Pathé Frères entre 1906 et 1908. In: 1895. Revue d’Histoire du Cinéma, 71, 2013, pp. 47–60, on pp. 58–60. (in French) View Quote

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., p. 335. View Quote


Fr. P. 337,054