“The Fujicolor process is a three-color subtractive negative/positive process introduced in 1955 by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

When the process was introduced it consisted of two elements that could be used singly or together. A coupler-incorporated three-color negative and a coupler-incorporated three-color print film. Initially the films were only used in Japanese domestic markets. During this period both films were improved several times. Film speed, graininess, sharpness, and color reproduction were improved as the negative films evolved from Type 8511 through 8516 and the print films evolved from Type 8811 through 8818.”

(Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, p. 181.)

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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Takashi Horiguchi (1980): New 16-mm Fujicolor Reversal Films RT 500 and RT 125. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 89, Sept. 1980, pp. 645-649.

Sadayuki Yamaryo; Shingo Ishimaru; Kazuhiko Takemura (1985): New Fujicolor High-Speed Negative Film and Positive Film. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, July 1985, pp. 735-742.

Secondary Sources

Bergala, Alain (1995): La couleur, la Nouvelle Vague et ses maîtres des années cinquante. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Milan: Mazzotta, pp. 126–136, on p. 129. (in French) View Quote

Beyer, Friedemann; Koshofer, Gert; Krüger, Michael (2010): UFA in Farbe. Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, on p. 54. (in German) View Quote

Koshofer, Gert (1988): Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, on p. 114 View Quote, on pp. 131–132 View Quote and on p. 147. (in German) View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on p. 1. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 191–192. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 21-24. (in French) View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Don’t Look Now (GBR / ITA 1973, Nicolas Roeg):
Canby, Vincent (1973): Film. Don’t Look Now, a Horror Tale. In: New York Times, Dec., p. 56. View Quote
Full text on The New York Times website. View Link


Flashdance (USA 1983, Adrian Lyne):
Maslin, Janet (1983): Pittsburgh And Dance. In: The New York Times, Apr., p. C13. View Quote
Full text on The New York Times website. View Link

Maslin, Janet (1983): When Style Overrides the Content. In: The New York Times, Aug., pp. 15–16, on p. 15. View Quote
Full text on The New York Times website. View Link


Matador (ESP 1986, Pedro Almodóvar):
Canby, Vincent (1988): Almodóvar’s Matador, Surrealist Sex Comedy. In: The New York Times, Sep., p. C8. View Quote
Full text on The New York Times website. View Link

Selected Analyses

Cyclo (VNM, FRA, HKG 1995, Tran Anh Hung):
Galt, Rosalind (2011): Pretty. Film and the Decorative Image. New York: Columbia University Press, on pp. 31–32. View Quote


Don’t Look Now (GBR, ITA 1973, Nicolas Roeg):
Watkins, Liz (2015): Don’t Look Now. Transience and Text. In: Screen, 4,56, pp. 436–449, on pp. 336–339 View Quote, on p. 444 View Quote and on pp. 447–448. View Quote


Flashdance (USA 1983, Adrian Lyne):
Fisher, Bob (1984): Academy Award Nominees. Don Peterman and Flashdance. In: American Cinematographer, 65,4, pp. 59–64, on pp. 59–60 View Quote and on p. 64. View Quote

Veze, Robert (1983): Photography for Flashdance. In: American Cinematographer, 64,5, pp. 72–76, 109–113, on pp. 75–76 View Quote and on pp. 110–113. View Quote