Zoechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Wolff-Heide

additive three-color: Integrated filters and rotary filter
Much like many other additive processes, the Wolff-Heide system was based on three black and white color separations printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through a rotary filter attached to the projector. However, the biggest ...

Warner-Powrie

Additive 3 color: Line screen
“The Warner-Powrie process patented in 1905 was the earliest commercial process using a screen made with bichromated colloid. A glass plate was thinly coated with bichromated gelatin or fish glue and exposed to light through a screen having ...

Vitacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Single coated

Versicolor-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Vericolor

Subtractive 2 color: unknown

40 Images

Urban-Joy Process, improvement of Kinemacolor, later called Kinekrom

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“In the design of apparatus Urban was assisted after 1905 by Henry W. Joy. The Urban-Joy perforator appeared in 1906. The Urban-Joy anti-firing device, a shutter to prevent the firing of inflammable film when projectors broke down, was another ...

Unidentified Processes

Various

Photographs of unidentified color film technologies. Several different principles and times. Feel free to contact us if you can help identifying them!

295 Images in 4 Galleries

Ulysse

Two, three or four color color additive process: multiple lenses
The process relied on two-, three- or even four-color selections being superimposed on the screen. On the positive, two, three or four images of reduced dimensions were printed on a single frame with a longitudinal and lateral distance corresponding ...

Ufacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

135 Images in 7 Galleries

Trucolor 3 color

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation on DuPont Release Positive Film

Trucolor 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated with dye couplers
“By the 1940s, most of the two-colour subtractive processes, apart from Cinecolor, were obsolete. The widespread use of the high-quality Technicolor process showed up the serious deficiencies in the simpler methods. The only significant new ...

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Traube / Uvachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Mordanting, dye transfer, wash-off relief, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

3 Images

Traube / Diachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Mordant toning, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Toning / metallic toning (French: virage, German: Tonung)

Applied colors: Replacement of silver

In contrast to tinting, toning is not the simple immersion of a film into a dye bath but involves a chemical reaction converting the silver image. In this reaction the neutral silver image in the emulsion of the positive film is replaced by one consisting of colored metal compounds. These were usually iron ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) for blue, copper ferrocyanide for red/brown, silver sulfide for sepia or rarely uranium ferrocyanide for reddish brown. Toning had been used in still photography before. But since film was projected on the screen it required translucent toning compounds.

1549 Images in 62 Galleries

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...

1 Image

Tinting (French: teintage, German: Virage)

Applied colors: Dyed gelatin

For tinting, the positive print is immersed into a variety of dye baths, scene by scene. To this end, the print has to be cut into the corresponding fragments and reassembled after the dyeing process. The dye homogeneously attaches over the entire image’s gelatin including the perforation area. Usually synthetic dyes were dissolved in a weak acid solution to form a chemical bond with the gelatin.

4455 Images in 109 Galleries

Tinted film base / Kodak Sonochrome

Applied colors: Tinted film for sound films
Kodak Sonochrome was a specially prepared tinted film for sound film that did not interfere with the spectral sensitivity of the photo-electric cell for the reading of the optical sound track. The 17 Sonochrome tints were dyed in mainly light hues ...

79 Images in 3 Galleries

Thornton

Additive two-color or four-color process: beam splitter and mosaic screen, films
In this process, two positives, one orange-red one blue-green, were cemented together. Several specifications and modifications exist, for instance the strengthening of the perforated film margins via a second exposure, in an attempt to overcome wear ...

Thomson Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

3 Images

Thomascolor

Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm

2 Images

Theory of three-color photography

Theory

11 Images

1 Image

Telco Color, additive 2 color

Additive 2 color: Split optics, side by side

Telco color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Split optics, side by side, duplitized film

1 Image

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer
In 1994, Technicolor announced the development of an enhanced dye-transfer process. This process became effective in  June 1997. There was no official denomination, so “Technicolor No. VI” is not to be confused with statements from the mid ...

Technicolor No. V: Dye transfer prints from chromogenic negative

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer
With the introduction of the chromogenic Eastmancolor negative/positive process it became possible to shoot with a normal one-strip camera. Three b/w color separations were produced from the Eastmancolor negative and printed by dye transfer on blank ...

2257 Images in 41 Galleries

Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, beam-splitter, dye transfer
With the fourth Technicolor process the company dominated the market for color films from the mid-1930s to the 1950s. In a special camera, three b/w negative films were exposed through a beam-splitter that consisted of two prisms to form a cube. One ...

1859 Images in 65 Galleries

Technicolor No. III

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, dye transfer

The third Technicolor process used the same camera as process no. II to combine a pair of frames of the red and green record respectively on the b/w negative (see image). In contrast to the former process, however, the two images were printed on one side of the positive by the dye transfer or imbibition process.

1296 Images in 37 Galleries

Technicolor No. II

Subtractive 2 color: 2 toned films cemented

The first subtractive 2 color process introduced by Technicolor captured the incoming light through a beam splitter with red and green filters also. However, in contrast to the first Technicolor process, the two b/w images were recorded on one negative strip. This was achieved by the pull-down of two frames simultaneously, a process that required the double speed in the camera. These two frames were arranged in pairs, whereby the green record was inverted up-side down (see image).

133 Images in 8 Galleries

Technicolor No. I

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

During the capturing of the film a beam-splitter in combination with filters in the camera divided the incoming light into a red and a green separation negative on black-and-white stock. When projected in the cinema the two images were combined simultaneously by additive mixture through corresponding red and green filters into one picture consisting of red and green colored light. The reduction of the whole color range to two colors (and their additive combinations) was necessary because of the complex optical arrangement.

6 Images in 1 Gallery

Technicolor Monopack / Kodachrome Professional Type 5267 / Eastman Monopack 7267

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
During the 1940s Kodachrome was used as camera material for films that were blown up to 35mm Technicolor projection prints. Technicolor used this technology from 1942 until the mid-1950s when Eastman Kodak introduced the Eastmancolor ...

Technichrome

Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer, 2 color bi-pack, 3 color printing

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Technic-Colour

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, duplitized

Talkicolor

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained
“Two-colour additive process Talkicolor was developed by Percy James Pearce along with Dr Anthony Bernardi who was also involved in the development of Raycol. The process was funded mainly by the author Elinor Glyn through her company Elinor ...

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Taihang Color

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Szczepanik

Additive 3 color: Moving lenses
“The process of J. Szczepanik in 1925 was impracticable. He used a non-intermittent camera having a chain of eighteen lenses moving together with the film behind a collimating lens, three pictures being simultaneously exposed.” (Klein, ...

Svema LN-8

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-7

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-6M

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-5M

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-3

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-2

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema LN-1

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema DS-5M

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema DS-4

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema DS-3

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema DS-2

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema DS-1

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema CO-T-90 L

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Svema CO-T-22 D

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Supercinecolor / Natural Color

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, duplitized film, third layer added

Super Anscochrome Tungsten, type 226

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16mm
See Anscochrome and Super Anscochrome Daylight, type 225.

Super Anscochrome Daylight, type 225

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16mm
See Anscochrome and Super Anscochrome Tungsten, type 226.

Splendicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, bichromated gelatin, Pinatype

Spicer-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm reversal
For a description of Spicer-Dufay see detail page on Dufaycolor)

78 Images in 2 Galleries

Spectracolor (= British version of Ufacolor)

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

Sovcolor negative type G

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten

Sovcolor negative film type B

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight

15 Images in 3 Galleries

Sistema Cristiani-Mascarini

Additive four-color: beam splitter and filters, four images on 35mm black and white film.
For this four-color process, the light beam was decomposed into four parts, each of which simultaneously exposed an area equal to one quarter of the 35mm frame of a black and white negative. This was obtained optically by placing a diaphragm and a ...

2 Images

Sirius

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
“The Dutch Sirius Color process (1929) used a camera with a beamsplitting system behind the lens to expose a single film, the film passing through two gates at right angles to each other. The double-coated print film was dye-toned. The process ...

139 Images in 3 Galleries

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach
“Probably the first use of the catalytic property of silver was in 1889, when E. Howard Farmer disclosed the action of a silver image upon strong dichromate solutions (Eng. P. 17773/89). When a plate or film, containing a silver image, is immersed ...

Sensitizing theory

Color theory
“Dr. H. W. Vogel, the discoverer of colour sensitizers, made three-colour photography possible, and has been the first to recognise the relation between colour sensitiveness of plate and printing colour in the following principle made known in ...

Sennett Color

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double coated, toned
“Public showings of the work done at this plant in Hollywood have been given to Los Angeles audiences. The release prints are made on double sided film. Both sides are developed at one time and then toned red on one side and bluegreen on the ...

18 Images in 1 Gallery

Sakuracolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal

Russian two-color system

Subtractive two color

1 Image

Russian three-color process

Subtractive three color

6 Images

Rouxcolor 4 color

Additive 4 color: 4 lenses

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Rouxcolor 2 color / Cineoptichrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

2 Images

Rotocolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“The Rotocolor process was an additive system for color cinematography. The process was announced in 1931 by H. Muller. According to an article in Film Daily, April 12, 1931, and The Motion Picture Herald, April 11, 1931, the process consisted of ...

Rota Farbenfilm

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

10 Images in 2 Galleries

Roncarolo

Subtractive 2, 3 or 4 color: Beam-splitter and bi-pack, later dye-transfer
The Roncarolo system required a camera capable of recording two panchromatic negatives (which became three or four in subsequent patents) through the use of a beam splitter and red and green filters. The chromatic information registered on the two or ...

Raycol

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sawn-off lens

13 Images in 1 Gallery

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography
“Louis Ducos du Hauron is reported to have become interested in the reproduction of colors by photography in 1859, when he was twentyone years old (Potonniée, 1939). In 1862 he submitted to a friend of his family, M. Lelut, a paper embodying ...

2 Images

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory
Description of a variety of color processes, even for images in motion by the use of a rotary shutter.

Procédé Tetrachrome

Additive four-color process: rotating filters
Based on four primary colors, the process successively recorded two simultaneous images for two primary colors each. In projection, the four images were combined on screen, supposedly via a regular projector.

Procédé Colombier

Subtractive 3 color: Tri-pack
“M. F. de Colombier appears to have been the first to suggest the application of this system to cinematography, and like so many French patents it is a little indefinite in phraseology. Three films were employed representing the same view and ...

Prizma II

Subtractive 2 color: Toning on double coated film
“In its final form Prizma made use of duplitized positive film. As in previous Prizma systems, the original negatives were alternate frame sequential exposures. The Prizma negative was printed on both sides of the positive film in a special ...

394 Images in 14 Galleries

Prizma I

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The color experiments were conducted in the basement of a house at 1586 E. Seventeenth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. During this time a double-coated stock and a bleach formula which had much to do with the success of the later Prizma process were ...

Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

1 Image

Predecessor of Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Then we come upon the name of George Albert Smith, F.R.A.S., of Laboratory Lodge, Roman Crescent, Southwick, Brighton, who in E.P. 26,671, of 1906, patented the method which eventually was commercialized as Kinemacolor. In this patent he ...

Polychromide

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, later bi-pack, mordant dye
“Polychromide, a two-color subtractive process invented in 1918 by Aron Hamburger, achieved limited commercial success overseas, and was occasionally employed in England as late as 1933. Originally an orthochromatic and a panchromatic negative were ...

62 Images in 2 Galleries

Polavision

Diffusion: Line screen, super-8 mm

13 Images

Polacolor Instant Photography

instant still photography
“Polacolor was commercialized in 1963 and became an immediate success. It was acclaimed as the “most outstanding single advance in photographic science made during this century” (Crawley 1963). Indeed, Polacolor introduced important new ...

Polacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multicolor dye images

Polachrome

35mm Slide Film

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Pinchart

Additive 3 color: Four lenses, red-green-blue-grey

2 Images

Pinatype / Pinatypie

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

4 Images

Photocolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

42 Images

Pathécolor / Pathéchrome / stencil coloring

Applied colors: Stencil, dyed gelatin
Stencil coloring required the manual cutting, frame by frame, of the area which was to be tinted onto another identical print, one for each color. Usually the number of colors applied ranged from 3 to 6. The process was highly improved by the ...

2162 Images in 73 Galleries

Pantachrom

Subtractive 3 color: Bi-pack and lenticular film recording, duplitized film with toning and silver dye-bleach
“In October, Eggert of the Agfa Research Department, read a paper at the Berlin meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für photographische Forschung, on the Pantochrom subtractive lenticular bipack tricolor process. (Fig. 1) The green and blue ...

17 Images in 3 Galleries

Panchromotion

Additive 4 color: Rotary filter
”Kelley’s first color process was a four-color additive system introduced in 1913. Called Panchromotion, Kelley formed a company which would exploit the process commercially and, he hoped, provide strong competition for Kinemacolor. He apparently ...

2 Images

Panacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multilayer print

Orwocolor NC 3

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Orwocolor NC 1

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Orwocolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1022 Images in 27 Galleries

Orwochrom

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

84 Images in 3 Galleries

Orthochromatic stock

b/w photography: Orthochromatic b/w stock
“In 1873 Dr Vogel discovered that by adding dyes to the sensitive material, its sensitivity could be extended, so that it would record green as well as blue. The new ‘orthochromatic’ plates were available commercially from 1882. The ...

2 Images

Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

Multicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized
“In the Multicolor (two-color) subtractive process, two negative films are run simultaneously through any standard camera with their emulsion surfaces in contact. The front negative is orthochromatic, with the surface layer dyed orange-red to ...

66 Images in 6 Galleries

Mroz Farbenfilm

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images, 9.5 and possibly 16 mm

Moviechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

Morgana Process

Additive 2 color: Alternating filters, 16 mm

1 Image

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...

171 Images in 7 Galleries

Monopack stripping

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack, stripping, still photography
“To offset the possible effects of poor contact between the various members of the tripack, J. H. Smith coated the emulsions directly one on top of the other, but with an insulating layer of collodion between them. In this manner there was ...

1 Image

Mondiacolor

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

Magnacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“An American two-colour subtractive process still worked by the Consolidated Film Industries division of Republic Pictures Corporation. This concern was licensed by the owners of the “Prizma” patents, which it will be remembered was ...

23 Images in 2 Galleries

Magnachrome

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size

Lippmann

Direct color photography: Interference, still photography
“In 1891, Professor Gabriel Lippmann demonstrated to the French Académie des Sciences interference colour photographs of the spectrum and of stained glass windows, taken by a modification of Wiener’s method. An exceedingly fine grained, ...

5 Images

Lignose Naturfarbenfilm

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

2 Images

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...

4 Images

Lee and Turner

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Frederick Marshall Lee, of Walton, and Edward Raymond Turner, of Hounslow, to whom is usually accorded the credit of achieving the first practical results in additive projection. Their experimental work was financed by Charles Urban, a ...

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Apparently, associated with W. Friese-Greene, in the same year, Captain William Norman Lascelles-Davidson, also of Brighton, patented a triple lens motion picture camera (E.P. 23,863, 1898). The colour filters revolved either behind the lenses, ...

1 Image

Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...

7 Images

Konicolor

Subtractive 3 color

“The Konicolor system, introduced by Konishiroku Shashin Kogyo (Now Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.), split the image into three colors and shot them separately onto three b&w films. In that sense it had something in common with the US ‘Technicolor system’, but this was not a contact print with color dye to create positive film, but used coated emulsion to develop each color in a triple process, which is peculiar. […].”

Kodak Vision3 Color Digital Intermediate Film 5254 / 2254

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision3 50D Color Negative Film 5203 / 7203

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Vision3 500T Color Negative Film 5219 / 7219

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision3 250D Color Negative Film 5207 / 7207

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision2 50D Color Negative Film 5201 / 7201

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5260

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5218 / 7218

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 250D Color Negative Film 5205 / 7205

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision2 200T Color Negative Film 5217 / 7217

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Kodak Vision2 100T Color Negative Film 5212 / 7212

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision2 "HD Color Scan Film" 500T Color Negative Film 5299 / 7299

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5229 / 7229

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision Premiere Color Print Film 2393

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Teleprint Film 2395

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Print Film 2383

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Intermediate Film 5242 / 7242

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Intermediate Film 2242 / 3242

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 7289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 5289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5279 / 7279 (U)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5263 / 7263

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 320T Color Negative Film 5277 / 7277 (Q)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 320 ASA

Kodak Vision 250D Color Negative Film 5246 / 7246

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision 200T Color Negative Film 5274 / 7274

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Kodak Vision "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5284 / 7284

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak SFX 200T Color Negative Film

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm

Kodak Panchromatic Separation Film 2238

Black and white panchromatic film: Three-color separation positives from color negatives

Kodak EXR Primetime 640T Teleproduction Film 5620 / 7620

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Color Asset Protection Film 2332

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodacolor / Keller-Dorian Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“LENTICULAR PROCESS In 1896 R. E. Liesegang (Ahriman, 1896) suggested a photographic color process based upon the use of banded filters in the camera aperture. […] In 1909 R. Berthon (British Patent 10,611; see also Berthon, 1910a, b) ...

24 Images in 1 Gallery

Kodachrome Two-color 1915, after 1930 renamed Fox Nature Color

Subtractive 2 color process: Beam-splitter, double-coated film

The Kodachrome process was invented in 1913 by John G. Capstaff for still photography and subsequently adapted to motion pictures. For the process two frames were advanced simultaneously, one located above the other. The light passed either through two lenses or through a beam-splitter, fitted with red and green filters. The release print was exposed through a beam-splitter whereby the alternate frames were projected onto either side of double-coated stock. After development by a usual b/w process, the film was tanned to harden the exposed areas. The soft areas were dyed red-orange and blue-green respectively.

329 Images in 12 Galleries

Kodachrome Professional Film Type 5267

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm 35mm?
Kodachrome Professional was introduced in 1942 to be used as camera material. It was the Kodachrome material that was blown up to 35mm Technicolor dye transfer prints, which was the Technicolor Monopack system. According to Norris Pope this material ...

Kodachrome II

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm, 25 to 40 ASA
Kodachrome II was introduced in 1961. It was the first film stock since 1936 that was specifically meant for amateur use. Eastman Kodak presented the material as superior to the ‘regular Kodachrome’. It supposedly had a higher speed of 25 ...

84 Images in 5 Galleries

Kodachrome Commercial Type 5268

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
In 1946 Kodachrome Commercial camera film Type 5268 was introduced. This stock had a lower-contrast emulsion and became leading in the professional field until it was replaced by Ektachrome Commercial type 7255 in 1958. Both Commercial Kodachrome and ...

Kodachrome Color Reversal Film Type 5262

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
Although Kodachrome 16mm reversal film was introduced as an amateur film format, rapidly after its introduction it became a format frequently used by (semi-)professional film makers. The reason was that Kodachrome was a relatively easy to use film ...

Kodachrome Color Reversal Film 5265

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
Duplicating stock for reversal film. Replaced Kodachrome duplicating stock type 5262. Contrary to its predecessor the new stock was not suited as camera material. Type 5265 could only be used for duplication.

Kodachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 8 and 16 mm

“In 1930 Mannes and Godowsky were invited to join the staff of the Kodak Research Laboratory, where they concentrated on methods of processing multilayer films, while their colleagues worked out ways of manufacturing them. The result was the new Kodachrome film, launched in 1935. Three very thin emulsion layers were coated on film base, the emulsions being sensitised with non-wandering dyes to red, green and blue light, the red-sensitive layer being at the bottom.” (Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 121 ff.)

44 Images in 4 Galleries

Kislyn color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

1 Image

Kingston Process

Additive three color process: rotary filters
Three black-and-white color separations were printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through the corresponding color filters, thus combining to one color image on screen.

Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter

Kinemacolor was an additive process operated with alternating red and green filters that were applied to the shutter in front of the camera and in front of the projector. With at least 32 fps the frame rate was double the minimal frame rate of 16 fps. Time parallax with small differences between the red and green record resulted in color fringes that became visible when objects or scenes were moving.

13 Images in 3 Galleries

Kesdacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Line screen filter, duplitized film stock
”The process as illustrated in USP 1431309 was a two-color additive process, but it is stated that it could be a three- or four-color process. For the original photography, the negative was exposed through a line screen composed of alternate bands ...

1 Image

Kelleycolor

Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer
“In 1919 Kelley produced a series of coloured cartoons which were drawn by Pinto Colvig. In 1924 he introduced “Kelleycolor,” which was an imbibition process. Two colours were imbibed on a black-and-white key image. In 1926 he ...

1 Image

Keller-Dorian

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

14 Images in 2 Galleries

Katachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack silver dye-bleach, still photography
Karl Schinzel proposed a multi-layered monopack for still photography, based on the principle of the dye-bleach process which was later elaborated to a practical application with Gasparcolor.

Jumeaux/Davidson

Additive 3 color: Prism

2 Images

Joly

Additive 3 color: Line screen process, still photography
“In 1894 Professor John Joly of Dublin patented a process for producing a screen of red, green and blue-violet lines by ruling them on a gelatin-coated glass plate. Joly used ruling machines of great accuracy, with drawing pens trailed across ...

7 Images

Isensee

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The first patent that has been found was granted to H. Isensee and he placed in front of the lens, both in taking and projection, a rotary shutter with three 120 degrees sectors in the usual colors.” (Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of ...

2 Images

Irix-Farbenfilm

Subtractive three-color process: imbibition
Three matrices in the subtractive primary colors are printed on the gelatin of the final print. Supposedly, the used dyes were particularly fast and able to prevent color bleeding. Pokorny started working on color cinematography in the 1920s, often ...

Iriscolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter camera, imbibition printing
Similar to Technicolor, the Iriscolor process needed a special beam-splitter camera for exposing three black-and-white negatives on Kodak film stock. These negatives were used for imbibition printing. Between 1940 and 1942, Tobis Tonbild-Syndikat AG ...

Indu Colour

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

2 Images

Hydrotypie / Hydrotype / dye transfer

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Horst

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Hirlicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack

2 Images

Hillman Process

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter, mirror system with two lenses

3 Images

Hérault Trichrome

Additive 3 color: Alternately stained in red, green and blue
“The Hérault Trichrome process was demonstrated in Paris on 1 October 1926, with three films made by A. Rodde — a fashion show, a documentary on Brittany and a tableau of the Legend of the King of Ys. Hérault Trichrome was an extension of ...

12 Images in 1 Gallery

Harriscolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, single-coated
“Harriscolor In this method as in other methods of color photography, independent color value negatives are first obtained. The Harriscolor process can employ one of the following two methods: Either a camera wherein the dividing light prisms ...

3 Images

Harmonicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“Harmonicoior was developed by French chemist Maurice Combes. It was first formally demonstrated in London by Harmonicoior Films Ltd, of 4 Great Winchester Street, on the 23 March 1936 at the Curzon Soho with the film Talking Hands, produced at ...

Handschiegl / DeMille-Wyckoff / Wyckoff Process

Applied color: Imbibition
Similar to stenciling, the Handschiegl process was applied mechanically to manually defined image parts. Therefore it is an applied color process. After the film was shot and edited, for each color applied a separate print was made. In contrast to ...

141 Images in 8 Galleries

Hand coloring

Applied colors: Manual application

Coloring of individual frames by the use of very fine brushes. The process was previously applied to lantern slides. Any water based translucent dye was suited for the process, most often the coloring was done with acid dyes.

250 Images in 18 Galleries

Gualtierotti or Cicona e Gualtierotti

Additive two-color: optical system, filters, 64mm negative.
Unlike other additive systems invented in previous years, Gualtierotti tried to avoid the phenomenon of chromatic aberration inherent in the use of multiple lenses or the creation of successive separation records. The proposed solution was based on ...

1 Image

Gilmore Color

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Gilmore’s two-color additive process was based on a patent granted to F. E. Ives in 1918. A unique optical system exposed two images in pairs, and quarter-turned them lengthwise side by side on standard 35 mm film stock. One of the images was ...

1 Image

Gevaert Positif Color

Applied colors: Pretinted film

Gevacolor T 6 82

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 80

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 55

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 54

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 53

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 52

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor T 6 51

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor Print Film T 9 86

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor Print Film T 9 85

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor Positive Film T 9 54

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor Positive Film T 9 53

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gevacolor Negative

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Gevachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal 16mm

10 Images in 1 Gallery

Gaumont Chronochrome

Additive 3 color: Sawn-off lenses and filters, simultaneous taking and projection
“The competition between Kinemacolor and other rival systems was partially stimulated by a Utopian faith in the potential of film technology to achieve ‘natural colour’, reality ‘as it is’ being the goal of the cinematic ...

12 Images in 2 Galleries

Gasparcolor OR Gaspar Color

Subtractive 3 color: Silver dye-bleach multilayer print film

Gasparcolor was the first three-color multi-layer monopack film available for practical use. It was a double-coated print film with a cyan layer on one side and two layers dyed magenta and yellow on the other side (see illustrations).

388 Images in 24 Galleries

Gaspar Color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Silver dye-bleach

Fullcolor

Subtractive 2 colors: Bi-pack, duplitized film

Fujicolor Positive, type 8819

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
See also Fujicolor.

Fujicolor Positive, type 8818

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
See also Fujicolor.

Fujicolor Positive Film Super F-CP 3510 / 3610

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Super F-CP 3510 / 3610

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film F-CP 3519D

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film F-CP 3519

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Eterna-CP 3523XD

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Eterna-CP 3521XD

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Eterna-CP 3514DI / 3614DI

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Eterna-CP 3513DI / 3613DI

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Positive Film Eterna-CP 3512 / 3612

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8516

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8515

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8514

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8513

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8512

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative, type 8511

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative High Speed AX, type 8512

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative AX, type 8514

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Fujicolor Negative A, type 8517

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative A, type 8511

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor Negative A 250, type 8518

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Fujicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chro