Horst

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Hydrotypie / Hydrotype / dye transfer

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Indu Colour

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

2 Images

Iriscolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter camera, imbibition printing
Similar to Technicolor, the Iriscolor process needed a special beam-splitter camera for exposing three black-and-white negatives on Kodak film stock. These negatives were used for imbibition printing. Between 1940 and 1942, Tobis Tonbild-Syndikat AG ...

Irix-Farbenfilm

Subtractive three-color process: imbibition
Three matrices in the subtractive primary colors are printed on the gelatin of the final print. Supposedly, the used dyes were particularly fast and able to prevent color bleeding. Pokorny started working on color cinematography in the 1920s, often ...

Isensee

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The first patent that has been found was granted to H. Isensee and he placed in front of the lens, both in taking and projection, a rotary shutter with three 120 degrees sectors in the usual colors.” (Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of ...

2 Images

Joly

Additive 3 color: Line screen process, still photography
“In 1894 Professor John Joly of Dublin patented a process for producing a screen of red, green and blue-violet lines by ruling them on a gelatin-coated glass plate. Joly used ruling machines of great accuracy, with drawing pens trailed across ...

7 Images

Jumeaux/Davidson

Additive 3 color: Prism

2 Images

Katachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack silver dye-bleach, still photography
Karl Schinzel proposed a multi-layered monopack for still photography, based on the principle of the dye-bleach process which was later elaborated to a practical application with Gasparcolor.

Keller-Dorian

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

14 Images in 2 Galleries

Kelleycolor

Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer
“In 1919 Kelley produced a series of coloured cartoons which were drawn by Pinto Colvig. In 1924 he introduced “Kelleycolor,” which was an imbibition process. Two colours were imbibed on a black-and-white key image. In 1926 he ...

1 Image

Kesdacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Line screen filter, duplitized film stock
”The process as illustrated in USP 1431309 was a two-color additive process, but it is stated that it could be a three- or four-color process. For the original photography, the negative was exposed through a line screen composed of alternate bands ...

1 Image

Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter

Kinemacolor was an additive process operated with alternating red and green filters that were applied to the shutter in front of the camera and in front of the projector. With at least 32 fps the frame rate was double the minimal frame rate of 16 fps. Time parallax with small differences between the red and green record resulted in color fringes that became visible when objects or scenes were moving.

13 Images in 3 Galleries

Kingston Process

Additive three color process: rotary filters
Three black-and-white color separations were printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through the corresponding color filters, thus combining to one color image on screen.

Kislyn color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

1 Image

Kodachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 8 and 16 mm

“In 1930 Mannes and Godowsky were invited to join the staff of the Kodak Research Laboratory, where they concentrated on methods of processing multilayer films, while their colleagues worked out ways of manufacturing them. The result was the new Kodachrome film, launched in 1935. Three very thin emulsion layers were coated on film base, the emulsions being sensitised with non-wandering dyes to red, green and blue light, the red-sensitive layer being at the bottom.” (Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 121 ff.)

92 Images in 6 Galleries

Kodachrome Color Reversal Film 5265

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
Duplicating stock for reversal film. Replaced Kodachrome duplicating stock type 5262. Contrary to its predecessor the new stock was not suited as camera material. Type 5265 could only be used for duplication.

Kodachrome Color Reversal Film Type 5262

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
Although Kodachrome 16mm reversal film was introduced as an amateur film format, rapidly after its introduction it became a format frequently used by (semi-)professional film makers. The reason was that Kodachrome was a relatively easy to use film ...

Kodachrome Commercial Type 5268

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm
In 1946 Kodachrome Commercial camera film Type 5268 was introduced. This stock had a lower-contrast emulsion and became leading in the professional field until it was replaced by Ektachrome Commercial type 7255 in 1958. Both Commercial Kodachrome and ...

Kodachrome II

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm, 25 to 40 ASA
Kodachrome II was introduced in 1961. It was the first film stock since 1936 that was specifically meant for amateur use. Eastman Kodak presented the material as superior to the ‘regular Kodachrome’. It supposedly had a higher speed of 25 ...

84 Images in 5 Galleries

Kodachrome Professional Film Type 5267

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm 35mm?
Kodachrome Professional was introduced in 1942 to be used as camera material. It was the Kodachrome material that was blown up to 35mm Technicolor dye transfer prints, which was the Technicolor Monopack system. According to Norris Pope this material ...

Kodachrome Two-color 1915, after 1930 renamed Fox Nature Color

Subtractive 2 color process: Beam-splitter, double-coated film

The Kodachrome process was invented in 1913 by John G. Capstaff for still photography and subsequently adapted to motion pictures. For the process two frames were advanced simultaneously, one located above the other. The light passed either through two lenses or through a beam-splitter, fitted with red and green filters. The release print was exposed through a beam-splitter whereby the alternate frames were projected onto either side of double-coated stock. After development by a usual b/w process, the film was tanned to harden the exposed areas. The soft areas were dyed red-orange and blue-green respectively.

350 Images in 12 Galleries

Kodacolor / Keller-Dorian Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“LENTICULAR PROCESS In 1896 R. E. Liesegang (Ahriman, 1896) suggested a photographic color process based upon the use of banded filters in the camera aperture. […] In 1909 R. Berthon (British Patent 10,611; see also Berthon, 1910a, b) ...

24 Images in 1 Gallery

Kodak Color Asset Protection Film 2332

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak EXR Primetime 640T Teleproduction Film 5620 / 7620

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Panchromatic Separation Film 2238

Black and white panchromatic film: Three-color separation positives from color negatives

Kodak SFX 200T Color Negative Film

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm

Kodak Vision "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5284 / 7284

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 200T Color Negative Film 5274 / 7274

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Kodak Vision 250D Color Negative Film 5246 / 7246

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision 320T Color Negative Film 5277 / 7277 (Q)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 320 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5263 / 7263

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5279 / 7279 (U)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 5289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 7289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Vision Color Intermediate Film 2242 / 3242

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Intermediate Film 5242 / 7242

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Print Film 2383

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Teleprint Film 2395

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Premiere Color Print Film 2393

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision2 "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5229 / 7229

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 "HD Color Scan Film" 500T Color Negative Film 5299 / 7299

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 100T Color Negative Film 5212 / 7212

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision2 200T Color Negative Film 5217 / 7217

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Kodak Vision2 250D Color Negative Film 5205 / 7205

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5218 / 7218

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5260

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 50D Color Negative Film 5201 / 7201

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Vision3 250D Color Negative Film 5207 / 7207

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision3 500T Color Negative Film 5219 / 7219

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision3 50D Color Negative Film 5203 / 7203

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Vision3 Color Digital Intermediate Film 5254 / 2254

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Konicolor

Subtractive 3 color

“The Konicolor system, introduced by Konishiroku Shashin Kogyo (Now Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.), split the image into three colors and shot them separately onto three b&w films. In that sense it had something in common with the US ‘Technicolor system’, but this was not a contact print with color dye to create positive film, but used coated emulsion to develop each color in a triple process, which is peculiar. […].”

Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...

7 Images

Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Apparently, associated with W. Friese-Greene, in the same year, Captain William Norman Lascelles-Davidson, also of Brighton, patented a triple lens motion picture camera (E.P. 23,863, 1898). The colour filters revolved either behind the lenses, ...

1 Image

Lee and Turner

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Frederick Marshall Lee, of Walton, and Edward Raymond Turner, of Hounslow, to whom is usually accorded the credit of achieving the first practical results in additive projection. Their experimental work was financed by Charles Urban, a ...

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...

4 Images

Lignose Naturfarbenfilm

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

2 Images

Lippmann

Direct color photography: Interference, still photography
“In 1891, Professor Gabriel Lippmann demonstrated to the French Académie des Sciences interference colour photographs of the spectrum and of stained glass windows, taken by a modification of Wiener’s method. An exceedingly fine grained, ...

5 Images

Magnachrome

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size

Magnacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“An American two-colour subtractive process still worked by the Consolidated Film Industries division of Republic Pictures Corporation. This concern was licensed by the owners of the “Prizma” patents, which it will be remembered was ...

23 Images in 2 Galleries

Mondiacolor

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

Monopack stripping

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack, stripping, still photography
“To offset the possible effects of poor contact between the various members of the tripack, J. H. Smith coated the emulsions directly one on top of the other, but with an insulating layer of collodion between them. In this manner there was ...

1 Image

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...

171 Images in 7 Galleries

Morgana Process

Additive 2 color: Alternating filters, 16 mm

1 Image

Moviechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

Mroz Farbenfilm

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images, 9.5 and possibly 16 mm

1 Image

Multicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized
“In the Multicolor (two-color) subtractive process, two negative films are run simultaneously through any standard camera with their emulsion surfaces in contact. The front negative is orthochromatic, with the surface layer dyed orange-red to ...

72 Images in 6 Galleries

New Agfa Color Plate

Additive 3 color: mosaic screen, combined system, still photography
“New Agfa Color Plate (1923–1932): colored particles very small and not visible to the naked eye, but clumps of particles of the same color give the image a pointillist effect (Fig. 2.62). Unlike with the autochromes, in which the grains ...

1 Image

Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

Orthochromatic stock

b/w photography: Orthochromatic b/w stock
“In 1873 Dr Vogel discovered that by adding dyes to the sensitive material, its sensitivity could be extended, so that it would record green as well as blue. The new ‘orthochromatic’ plates were available commercially from 1882. The ...

2 Images

Orwochrom

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

84 Images in 3 Galleries

Orwocolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1026 Images in 27 Galleries

Orwocolor NC 1

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Orwocolor NC 3

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Panacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multilayer print

11 Images in 1 Gallery

Panchromotion

Additive 4 color: Rotary filter
”Kelley’s first color process was a four-color additive system introduced in 1913. Called Panchromotion, Kelley formed a company which would exploit the process commercially and, he hoped, provide strong competition for Kinemacolor. He apparently ...

2 Images

Pantachrom

Subtractive 3 color: Bi-pack and lenticular film recording, duplitized film with toning and silver dye-bleach
“In October, Eggert of the Agfa Research Department, read a paper at the Berlin meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für photographische Forschung, on the Pantochrom subtractive lenticular bipack tricolor process. (Fig. 1) The green and blue ...

19 Images in 3 Galleries

Pathécolor / Pathéchrome / stencil coloring

Applied colors: Stencil, dyed gelatin
Stencil coloring required the manual cutting, frame by frame, of the area which was to be tinted onto another identical print, one for each color. Usually the number of colors applied ranged from 3 to 6. The process was highly improved by the ...

2265 Images in 73 Galleries

Photocolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

42 Images

Pinatype / Pinatypie

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

4 Images

Pinchart

Additive 3 color: Four lenses, red-green-blue-grey

2 Images

Polachrome

35mm Slide Film

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Polacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multicolor dye images

Polacolor Instant Photography

instant still photography
“Polacolor was commercialized in 1963 and became an immediate success. It was acclaimed as the “most outstanding single advance in photographic science made during this century” (Crawley 1963). Indeed, Polacolor introduced important new ...

4 Images

Polavision

Diffusion: Line screen, super-8 mm

14 Images

Polychromide

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, later bi-pack, mordant dye
“Polychromide, a two-color subtractive process invented in 1918 by Aron Hamburger, achieved limited commercial success overseas, and was occasionally employed in England as late as 1933. Originally an orthochromatic and a panchromatic negative were ...

66 Images in 2 Galleries

Predecessor of Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Then we come upon the name of George Albert Smith, F.R.A.S., of Laboratory Lodge, Roman Crescent, Southwick, Brighton, who in E.P. 26,671, of 1906, patented the method which eventually was commercialized as Kinemacolor. In this patent he ...

Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

1 Image

Prizma I

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The color experiments were conducted in the basement of a house at 1586 E. Seventeenth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. During this time a double-coated stock and a bleach formula which had much to do with the success of the later Prizma process were ...

Prizma II

Subtractive 2 color: Toning on double coated film
“In its final form Prizma made use of duplitized positive film. As in previous Prizma systems, the original negatives were alternate frame sequential exposures. The Prizma negative was printed on both sides of the positive film in a special ...

399 Images in 14 Galleries

Procédé Colombier

Subtractive 3 color: Tri-pack
“M. F. de Colombier appears to have been the first to suggest the application of this system to cinematography, and like so many French patents it is a little indefinite in phraseology. Three films were employed representing the same view and ...

Procédé Tetrachrome

Additive four-color process: rotating filters
Based on four primary colors, the process successively recorded two simultaneous images for two primary colors each. In projection, the four images were combined on screen, supposedly via a regular projector.

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography
“Louis Ducos du Hauron is reported to have become interested in the reproduction of colors by photography in 1859, when he was twentyone years old (Potonniée, 1939). In 1862 he submitted to a friend of his family, M. Lelut, a paper embodying ...

2 Images

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory
Description of a variety of color processes, even for images in motion by the use of a rotary shutter.

Raycol

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sawn-off lens

13 Images in 1 Gallery

Roncarolo

Subtractive 2, 3 or 4 color: Beam-splitter and bi-pack, later dye-transfer
The Roncarolo system required a camera capable of recording two panchromatic negatives (which became three or four in subsequent patents) through the use of a beam splitter and red and green filters. The chromatic information registered on the two or ...