Telco color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Split optics, side by side, duplitized film

1 Image

Kodachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 8 and 16 mm

“In 1930 Mannes and Godowsky were invited to join the staff of the Kodak Research Laboratory, where they concentrated on methods of processing multilayer films, while their colleagues worked out ways of manufacturing them. The result was the new Kodachrome film, launched in 1935. Three very thin emulsion layers were coated on film base, the emulsions being sensitised with non-wandering dyes to red, green and blue light, the red-sensitive layer being at the bottom.” (Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 121 ff.)

92 Images in 6 Galleries

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography
“Louis Ducos du Hauron is reported to have become interested in the reproduction of colors by photography in 1859, when he was twentyone years old (Potonniée, 1939). In 1862 he submitted to a friend of his family, M. Lelut, a paper embodying ...

2 Images

Dufay / Dioptichrome Plate (sometimes incorrectly referenced as Dioptochrome)

Additive 2-4 color: Line screen plate (réseau), still photography and early experiments with film
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)

10 Images

Versicolor-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Dufaycolor reversal

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 16 mm, reversal
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)

Spicer-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm reversal
For a description of Spicer-Dufay see detail page on Dufaycolor)

78 Images in 2 Galleries

Dufaycolor

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm and 16 mm, reversal and negative-positive stock

Dufaycolor was a regular line screen process whereby the incident light was filtered through a pattern of tiny color patches created by lines in red, green and blue, the so called réseau.

231 Images in 9 Galleries

Procédé Tetrachrome

Additive four-color process: rotating filters
Based on four primary colors, the process successively recorded two simultaneous images for two primary colors each. In projection, the four images were combined on screen, supposedly via a regular projector.

Rouxcolor 2 color / Cineoptichrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

2 Images

Sirius

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
“The Dutch Sirius Color process (1929) used a camera with a beamsplitting system behind the lens to expose a single film, the film passing through two gates at right angles to each other. The double-coated print film was dye-toned. The process ...

142 Images in 4 Galleries

Horst

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Sistema Cristiani-Mascarini

Additive four-color: beam splitter and filters, four images on 35mm black and white film.
For this four-color process, the light beam was decomposed into four parts, each of which simultaneously exposed an area equal to one quarter of the 35mm frame of a black and white negative. This was obtained optically by placing a diaphragm and a ...

2 Images

Audibert

Addtive 3 color: Beam-splitter, mosaic screen, 65 mm

3 Images

Harmonicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“Harmonicoior was developed by French chemist Maurice Combes. It was first formally demonstrated in London by Harmonicoior Films Ltd, of 4 Great Winchester Street, on the 23 March 1936 at the Curzon Soho with the film Talking Hands, produced at ...

Handschiegl / DeMille-Wyckoff / Wyckoff Process

Applied color: Imbibition
Similar to stenciling, the Handschiegl process was applied mechanically to manually defined image parts. Therefore it is an applied color process. After the film was shot and edited, for each color applied a separate print was made. In contrast to ...

141 Images in 8 Galleries

Panacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multilayer print

11 Images in 1 Gallery

Russian two-color system

Subtractive two color

1 Image

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...

1 Image

Cosmocolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

2 Images

Cinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sub-standard vertical

2 Images

Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

1 Image

Autotype Dyebro

Subtractive 3 color: dye imbibition process, still photography
“Autotype Dyebro Introduced around the same time as Colorsnap and Uvatype, Autotype Dyebro combined the three-color carbro and dye imbibition processes. The method was invented by Owen Wheeler (1859–1932) and commercialized by the Autotype ...

Russian three-color process

Subtractive three color

6 Images

Brewster

Subtractive 2 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“Following the premises of one of William Friese-Greene’s systems, this two-colour subtractive process required that two reels of film be printed in parallel through a lens fitted with a prism that split light in two directions, through red ...

Brewster

Subtractive 2 or 3 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“The Brewster Process. (U.S.P. 1,752,477. 1930-) Camera. – P. D. Brewster, an American inventor, who was one of the first to apply the bipack system to colour cinematography, has a number of patents to his credit covering various cameras and ...

52 Images in 1 Gallery

Talkicolor

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained
“Two-colour additive process Talkicolor was developed by Percy James Pearce along with Dr Anthony Bernardi who was also involved in the development of Raycol. The process was funded mainly by the author Elinor Glyn through her company Elinor ...

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Ulysse

Two, three or four color color additive process: multiple lenses
The process relied on two-, three- or even four-color selections being superimposed on the screen. On the positive, two, three or four images of reduced dimensions were printed on a single frame with a longitudinal and lateral distance corresponding ...

Gorsky Process

Chimicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, mordant toning

2 Images

Ataraxia

Subtractive 4 color: pigment process, still photography
“In 1998 Racey Gilbert purchased Polaroid’s stock of pigment films and opened Ataraxia Studio in Bensalem, Pennsylvania, to make high-quality collectors’ carbon prints. Under the direction of Gérard Niemetzky, the studio produced ...

1 Image

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...

4 Images

Chromogenic development

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic development

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach
“Probably the first use of the catalytic property of silver was in 1889, when E. Howard Farmer disclosed the action of a silver image upon strong dichromate solutions (Eng. P. 17773/89). When a plate or film, containing a silver image, is immersed ...

Irix-Farbenfilm

Subtractive three-color process: imbibition
Three matrices in the subtractive primary colors are printed on the gelatin of the final print. Supposedly, the used dyes were particularly fast and able to prevent color bleeding. Pokorny started working on color cinematography in the 1920s, often ...

Thomascolor

Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm

5 Images

Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...

7 Images

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...

171 Images in 7 Galleries

Berthon

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“R. Berthon patented the use of a lens diaphragm with three apertures, covered respectively with red, green and blue-violet filters, and a sensitive surface on a support, the other side of which was impressed with hemi-spherical, transparent, ...

4 Images

Berthon-Siemens / Siemens-Berthon / Siemens-Perutz-Verfahren / Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

5 Images

Audibert

Additive 3 color: Prism
“R. Berthon and M. Audibert patented a method of obtaining a virtual image by means of an anterior lens and prisms or mirrors. This idea was further improved upon in E.P. 17,023, 1913. In F.P. 458,040 Audibert proposed to use a negative front lens ...

2 Images

Dugromacolor

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

1 Image

Magnachrome

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size

Chromogenic film stock

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Chromal Paper

Subtractive 3 color: dye coupling or chromogenic process, still photography
“A few years later, in 1912, two chemists at N.P.G. in Berlin, Rudolf Fischer (1881-1957) and Hans Siegrist (1885-1959), introduced the notion of color couplers and patented the application of Homolkas discovery. Their patent described the ...

Biochrom

Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Zoechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer
In 1994, Technicolor announced the development of an enhanced dye-transfer process. This process became effective in  June 1997. There was no official denomination, so “Technicolor No. VI” is not to be confused with statements from the mid ...

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Agfacolor Positiv Typ 5

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1 Image