Animation and Color

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Interviews with American Ink and Paint Women in 2D Animation.

Oral history transcripts, conducted by Women in Animation, 1994-1997. UCLA Performing Arts Oral History Collection.

Collection includes transcripts of interviews with Susan Ashley, Barbara Baldwin, Betty Brooks, Martha Buckley, Xenia De Mattia, Becky Fallberg, Mary Jane Frost, Grace Godino, Wilma Guenot, Julie Harvey, Anneline Liu, Joan Orbison, Sylvia Roemer, Martha Sigall, Virginia Swift and Auril Thompson.

(Information provided by Kirsten Moana Thompson, 2015)

Secondary Sources

Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 47–50.View Quote

Batistová, Anna (2013): Glorious Agfacolor, Breathtaking Totalvision and Monophonic Sound. Colour and “Scope” in Czechoslovakia. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 47-55, on pp. 48-49 View Quote and on pp. 51. View Quote

Cubitt, Sean (2009): Line and Color in The Band Concert. In: Animation. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 4,1, pp. 11-30.

Furniss, Maureen (1996): Animation and Color Key. The Career of Phyllis Craig. In: Animation Journal, 5,1 (Fall), pp. 58-70.

Furniss, Maureen (2000): Color and Line in Art in Motion. In: Animation Aesthetics. London: John Libbey, Rev. edition, pp. 71-74.

Guldin, Jere (1993): Photographing Animated Motion Pictures in Early Color Film Processes. In: Animatrix, Vol. 7, pp. 20–30, 21.

Kattenbelt, Chiel (1996): Color and the Absence of Color in Early Film Theories. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 116–132, on pp. 119–120. View Quote

Kindem, Gorham A. (1979): Hollywood’s Conversion to Color. The Technological, Economic, and Aesthetic Factors. In: Journal of the University Film Association, 31,2 (spring 1979), pp. 29–36.

Koshofer, Gert (1966): Fünfundzwanzig Jahre deutscher Farbenspielfilm. In: Film – Kino – Technik, 20,10, 1966, pp. 259-262, on p. 259. (in German) View Quote

Langer, Mark (1990): Regionalism in Disney Animation: Pink Elephants and Dumbo. In: Film History; An International Journal, 4,4, pp. 305-321.

Leslie, Esther (2002): Techne-Color. In: Hollywood Flatlands. Animation, Critical Theory and the Avant-Garde. London: Verso, pp. 251-289.

Misek, Richard (2010): Chromatic Cinema. London: Blackwell.

Neupert, Richard (1985): A Studio Built of Bricks. Disney and Technicolor. In: Film Reader, 6, pp. 33–40.

Neupert, Richard (1994): Painting a Plausible World. Disney’s Color Prototypes. In Eric Smoodin (ed). Disney Discourse. Producing the Magic Kingdom. New York: Routledge, pp. 106–117.

Schupp, Patrick (1975): Du rythme et des couleurs. In: Séquences. La revue de cinéma, 82, 1975, pp. 98–103, on pp. 99–101. (in French) View Quote

Telotte, J.P. (2004): Minor Hazards. Disney and the Color Adventure. In: Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 21, pp. 273–281.

Thompson, Kirsten Moana (2014): Animating Ephemeral Surfaces. Transparency, Translucency and Disney’s World of Color. In: Refractory. A Journal of Entertainment Media. Vol. 24. (June) 2014,

Thompson, Kirsten Moana (2014): ‘Quick – Like a Bunny !’ The Ink and Paint Machine, Female Labor and Color Production. In: Animation Studies, Vol. 9. February.

Usai, Cherchi Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate: Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Film. In: Richard Abel (ed.): Silent Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1996, pp. 21-31.

Zohn Patricia (2010): Coloring the Kingdom. In: Vanity Fair, pp. 281-291; 310-311.

(Information provided by Kirsten Moana Thompson, 2015)


O’Connell, Bill (1979): Fade Out. In: Film Comment, 15,5, pp. 11-18, on p. 13.  View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Kaskeline, Wolfgang (1932): Der farbige Film. In: Film-Kurier, No. 8, 9.1.1932. (in German) View Quote