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Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Description

With the fourth Technicolor process the company dominated the market for color films from the mid-1930s to the 1950s.

In a special camera, three b/w negative films were exposed through a beam-splitter that consisted of two prisms to form a cube. One portion of the incoming light passed directly to a frame aperture fitted with a green transmitting filter to the negative for the green record. The other portion of the incident light was directed by the semi-transparent, gold or silver dusted mirror at an angle of 90° to a bi-pack film, placed behind a magenta filter. The front film was orthochromatic for the blue record and contained a red-orange dye to block the blue light, the second film was panchromatic and captured the red record.

Before the dye-transfer was executed, the blank-film was exposed with a weak key image in b/w of the green record was exposed to improve perceived image sharpness. The blank film also contained the b/w optical sound track.

For the dye-transfer the three b/w records were printed onto the corresponding matrices, one for each color. Similar to process no. III, these matrices were developed, bleached and washed to form reliefs which could absorb the dyes for the imbibition of the projection print. Since this is a subtractive process the dyes were complementary to the taking colors: magenta for the green record, yellow for the blue record and cyan for the red separation.
These dyes were then transferred onto the blank film containing the key image, one after the other. It is obvious that pin-registering, i.e. the fine adjustment of the three records on top of each other, was crucial to deliver a sharp image without any color fringing.

As a reaction to the problems with process no. III, Technicolor took great care in maintaining a high standard of quality control. A cornerstone in this strategy was the Color Advisory Service, directed by Natalie M. Kalmus. The color consultants advised the productions on how to develop a color score in accordance with the narrative structure of a film. Set and costume design, props, make-up, lighting including the camera work were all controlled by the Technicolor company. The dominant ideology of Technicolor advised a restrained use of colors with an emphasis on naturalness, strictly subordinate to the story development. Colors should subtly convey dramatic moods and impressions to the audience. Kalmus also suggested the use of conventional color associations, such as red for passion, anger, power etc.

Specially trained cameramen had to learn to handle the difficult process. This required many tests before the actual shooting. Special care had to be given to shadows and highlights. White image parts tended to produce obtrusive blotches of white, while blacks were reproduced with unwanted color hues.

The emulsion was very slow, meaning that it needed high levels of illumination, and it was adjusted to the color temperature of daylight. Both these requirements led to the dominant use of hi arc (carbon-arc) lamps. Tungsten light either had to be adjusted to daylight by filters or it produced a yellow light for candles etc.





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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Anonymous (1956): Current Techniques of 35mm Color Film Photography and Printing. In: American Cinematographer, 37,1, January 1956, pp. 26-27 and p. 58, on p. 27 View Quote and on p. 27 and p. 58. View Quote

Ball, J. Arthur (1935): The Technicolor Process of Three-color Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, 1935, pp. 127-138. Available for download on this page.

Ball, J. Arthur (1946): Quality in Color Reproduction. In: Hollywood Quarterly, 2,1, pp. 45–49, on pp. 47–48. View Quote

Factor, Max (1937): The Standardization of Motion Picture Make-up. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 28,1, pp. 52–62. View Quote

Haller, Ernest (1939): Faster Color Film Cuts Light a Half. In: American Cinematographer, Aug., pp. 355–356. View Quote

Handley, C. W. (1935): Lighting for Technicolor Motion Pictures. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,5, Nov., pp. 423–431, on pp. 423–431. View Quote

Hoch, Winton (1942): Technicolor Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 39, Aug. 1942, pp. 96-108. Available for download on this page.

Hoch, Winton (1944): Technicolor Cinematography. In: The Technique of Motion Picture Production. A Symposium of Papers Presented at the 51st Semi-annual Convention of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Hollywood, Cal. New York: Interscience Publ. 1944, pp. 24-36.” View Quote

Holden, Lansing C. (1937): Color! The New Language of the Screen. In: Cinema Arts, 1,2, July 1937, p. 64. View Quote

Holden, Lansing C. (1937): Designing for Color. In: Nancy Naumburg (ed.): We Make the Movies. New York: Norton, pp. 239-252. View Quote

Howe, James Wong (1937): Reaction on Making His First Color Production. In: American Cinematographer, 18, October 1937, pp. 408–409 and pp. 411–412, on p. 408 View Quote, on p. 409 View Quote, on pp. 411–412 View Quote and on p. 412. View Quote

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 577-584. View Quote

Kalmus, Natalie M. (1935): Color Consciousness. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, 1935, pp. 139-147. View Quote

Kalmus, Natalie M. (1938): Colour. In: Stephen Watts (ed.): Behind the Screen. How Films are Made. New York, London: Dodge, Arthur Barker, pp. 116–127. View Quote

Mamoulian, Rouben (1935): Some Problems in Directing Color Pictures. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, pp. 148–153. Download

Secondary Sources

Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!” Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 19–20 View Quote, on p. 27 View Quote, on pp. 30–31 View Quote, on pp. 34–35 View Quote, on p. 43 View Quote, on pp. 44–46 View Quote, on pp. 98–99 View Quote, on p. 102 View Quote, on p. 103 View Quote, on p. 104 View Quote, on p. 111 View Quote, on pp. 127–128 View Quote, on pp. 129–130 View Quote, on pp. 131–132 View Quote, on p. 145 View Quote, on p. 176 View Quote, on pp. 352–353 View Quote, on p. 354 View Quote, on p. 367 View Quote, on pp. 372–373 View Quote, on p. 375 View Quote and on p. 386. (in German) View Quote

Andrew, Dudley (2006): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 44. View Quote

Anonymous (1934): What? Color in the Movies Again. In: Fortune 10, Oct. 1934, pp. 92-97, 161-162, 164, 166, 168, 171.

Anonymous (1980): Colour Problem. In: Sight and Sound, 50, pp. 12–13, on p. 12 View Quote and on p. 13. View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (2005): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 47–52 View Quote, on pp. 66–67 View Quote, on pp. 73–99 View Quote, on pp. 130–131 View Quote and on pp. 149–166. View Quote

Behlmer, Rudy (1964): Technicolor. In: Films in Review, 15,6, pp. 333–351, on pp. 343–348 View Quote and on pp. 348–351. View Quote

Beyer, Friedemann; Koshofer, Gert; Krüger, Michael (2010): UFA in Farbe. Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, on p. 49. (in German) View Quote

Biberman, Edward (1946): … In Glorious Technicolor In: Hollywood Quarterly, 2,1 (Oct., 1946), pp. 50-56. View Quote

Bordwell, David; Staiger, Janet; Thompson, Kristin (1985): The Classical Hollywood Cinema. Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. London: Routledge, on p. 353 View Quote, on pp. 353-357 View Quote and on p. 357. View Quote

Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on pp. 110–112 View Quote, on p. 113 View Quote, on pp. 116–118 View Quote and on pp. 118–119. (in French) View Quote

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix. In: Sarah Street: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 259-287, on pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes). View Quote

Brune, Wolfgang (1953): Die Technik des Farbfilms vervollkommnen. In: Bild und Ton, 6,5, pp. 132–134. (in German) View Quote

Buscombe, Edward (1978): Sound and Color. In: Jump Cut, 17, pp. 23–25. View Quote

Cauda, Ernesto (1938): Il cinema a colori. Quaderno mensile. Roma: Bianco e nero, anno II, nr. 11, on pp. 50–53 View Quote, on pp. 94–95 View Quote and on pp. 95–96. (in Italian) View Quote

Cooper, Alf; Lawson, Alan; Littlejohn, Frank (2013): Interview. Bernard Happé. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 131–138, on pp. 133–135. View Quote

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, 3rd. ed., pp. 451-478. View Quote

Costa de Beauregard, Raphaëlle (2009): Technicolor and Jack Cardiff’s Art and Craft in Powell and Pressburger’s A Matter of Life and Death (1946). In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 225–236, on p. 225 View Quote, on pp. 229–230 View Quote, on pp. 230–231 View Quote and on p. 233. View Quote

Cubitt, Sean (2014): The Practice of Light. A Genealogy of Technologies from Prints to Pixels. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: MIT Press, on pp. 132–136 View Quote and on p. 143. View Quote

Degenhardt, Inge (1996): On the Absence and Presence of Colour in Film. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 88–102, on pp. 95–96. View Quote

Déribéré, Maurice (1954): Les problèmes du cinéma en couleurs français. In: Technique Cinématographique, 25,145, pp. 185–189. (in French) View Quote

Eggert, John; Heymer, Gerd (1937): Der Stand der Farbenphotographie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, pp. 7–28, on pp. 20–22 View Quote, on pp. 24–25 View Quote and on pp. 26–28. (in German) View Quote

Everett, Wendy (2007): Mapping Colour. An Introduction to the Theories and Practices of Colour. In: Wendy Everett (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 7–38, on pp. 20–22. View Quote

Finler, Joel (1992): De Becky Sharp à Lola Montès. Comment la couleur vint au cinéma, entre 1935 et 1955. In: Yann Tobin (1992): Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on pp. 129–134.) (in French) View Quote

Florstedt, J. (1973): Recent Developments in International Colour Cinematography. In: The British Journal of Photography, pp. 340–348, on p. 347. View Quote

Giuliani, Luca (2002): I colori di Jour de fete di Jacques Tati. Fra anticipazioni stilistiche e ritardi tecnologici. In: Giorgio Placereani and Fabiano Rosso (eds.): Il gesto sonoro. Il cinema di Jacques Tati. Milano: Il Castoro, pp. 1–8, on pp. 3–4 and on p. 8. (in Italian) View Quote

Greene, W. Howard (1938): Low Key Lighting May be as Easy in Color as it is in Monochrome. In: American Cinematographer, April 1938, p. 151. View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on p. 57 View Quote and on p. 62. (in German) View Quote

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. View Quote

Happé, L.B.K. (1959): The Technicolor Process. In: British Cinematography 35, 1959, pp. 4-9. View Quote

Happé, L.B.K. (1960): New Developments in Technicolor Release Printing. In: British Cinematography 37, 1960, pp. 112-116.

Handley, C.W. (1937): Advanced technique of lighting on Technicolor. In: American Cinematographer, June 1937, p. 236. View Quote

Herring, Robert (1935): Technicolossal. In: Life and Letters Today, 13, Sep., pp. 194–196, on pp. 194–195. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (1999): Technology and Aesthetics. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in the Late 1930s. In: Film History, 11,1, pp. 55-76. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2000): Demonstrating Three-Colour Technicolor. “Early Three-Colour Aesthetics and Design”. In: Film History, 12,4, Color Film (2000), pp. 358–383. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 1–2 View Quote, on pp. 3–4 View Quote, on pp. 5–6 View Quote, on pp. 7–13 View Quote, on pp. 15–16 View Quote, on pp. 18–19 View Quote, on pp. 22–27 View Quote, on pp. 27–31 View Quote, on pp. 39–49 View Quote, on pp. 73–75 View Quote, on pp. 76–89 View Quote, on pp. 89–109 View Quote, on pp. 111–112 View Quote, on pp. 115–119 View Quote, on pp. 172–173 View Quote, on pp. 176–179 View Quote, on pp. 208–213 View Quote, on pp. 213–223 View Quote and on pp. 225–240. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2013): Chromo-Drama. Innovation and Convention in Douglas Sirk’s Color Designs. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 170–178. View Quote

Huntley, John (1949): British Technicolor Films. Cornhill, London: Skelton Robinson, on pp. 19–20 View Quote, on pp. 56–61 View Quote, on pp. 106–107 View Quote, on pp. 199–201 View Quote, on pp. 211–212 View Quote and on pp. 216–217. View Quote

Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on pp. 189–192. View Quote

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1993): Mr. Technicolor. Absecon, N.J.: Magic Image Filmbooks.

Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on pp. 201–205 View Quote, on pp. 205–207 View Quote and on pp. 208–221. View Quote

Kitsopanidou, Kira (2009): “Glorious Technicolor”. La stratégie d’innovation de la couleur de Technicolor dans l’industrie cinématographique Américaine. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 193–206, on pp. 195–200 View Quote and on pp. 201–202. (in French) View Quote

Koshofer (1993): Seit 75 Jahren Technicolor-Filme. In: Film & TV Kameramann 42,1, 1993, pp. 24-34 (in German).

Layton, James; Pierce, David (2015): The Dawn of Technicolor. Rochester: George Eastman House, on p. 61 View Quote, on pp. 251–252 View Quote, on pp. 252–253 View Quote and on p. 268. View Quote

Mamoulian, Rouben (1960): Color and Light in Films. The Esthetics of Colour. In: Film Culture, 21, pp. 68–79. View Quote

Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1937): The Development of the Art and Science of Photography in the Twentieth Century. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 28,1, pp. 3–20, on p. 13. View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on pp. 1–6 View Quote, on p. 6 View Quote, on p. 7. View Quote and on pp. 8–13. View Quote

Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on pp. 162–163. View Quote

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 32–33 View Quote and on p. 38. (in Italian) View Quote

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on pp. 15-21 View Quote and on p. 22. View Quote

Neame, Ronald (1944): A Talk on Technicolor. In: Cine-Technician, May/June 1944. pp. 36–40. Repr. in: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.) (2013): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 105–108. View Quote

Neupert, Richard (1990): Technicolor and Hollywood. Exercising Color Restraint. In: Post Script 10,1, pp. 21–29. View Quote

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 243-260. View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013a): Interview. Douglas Slocombe. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 90–93, on pp. 91–93. View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013b): Interview. Erwin Hillier. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 88–89, on p. 89. View Quote

Petrie, Duncan (2013c): Interview. Guy Green. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 83–87, on pp. 85–86. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 137, View Quote on pp. 137–139 View Quote, on pp. 140–141 View Quote, on pp. 141–143 View Quote, on pp. 146–147 View Quote, on pp. 147–148 View Quote, on pp. 148–150 View Quote, on p. 150 View Quote, on pp. 150–151 View Quote, on pp. 151–153 View Quote, on p. 153 View Quote, on p. 155 View Quote, on pp. 155–156 View Quote, on p. 156 View Quote, on pp. 159–160 View Quote, on pp. 200–201 View Quote and on pp. 207–208. (in Italian) View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on pp. 32–35 View Quote, on pp. 85–86 View Quote, on p. 139 View Quote on pp. 144–145. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17–24, on pp. 21–22. (in French) View Quote

Ray, Reid H. (1949): Use of 35mm Ansco Color Film for 16mm Color Release Prints. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 53,8, 1949, pp. 143–148, on p. 144. View Quote

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 79-81. View Quote

Schmidt, Richard; Kochs, Adolf (1943): Farbfilmtechnik. Eine Einführung für Filmschaffende. Berlin: Hesse, pp. 54-72. (Schriftenreihe der Reichsfilmkammer, 10.) (in German) View Quote

Slide, Anthony (1985): The Return of Becky Sharp. In: Films in Review, 36, Mar., pp. 148–153. View Quote

Stokes, Melvyn (2009): Colour in American Cinema. From The Great Train Robbery to Bonnie and Clyde. In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 184–192, on pp. 186–187. View Quote

Street, Sarah (2009): ‘Colour consciousness’. Natalie Kalmus and Technicolor in Britain. In: Screen 50,2, pp. 191-215. Link to download.

Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on p. 38 View Quote, on pp. 44–45 View Quote, on p. 45 View Quote and on pp. 48–50. View Quote

Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Christopher Challis. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 10–30. View Quote

Tompkins, E.S. (1944): In Defence of “Glorious” Colour. In: British Journal of Photography, 3 March, p. 74. View Quote

Valentine, Joe (1948): Lighting for Technicolor as Compared with Black and White Photography. In: International Photographer 20,1, Jan. 1948, pp. 7-10. View Quote

Viviani, Christian (1992): Le rose carminé de la fleur de cactus. Sur la couleur dans le western. In: Yann Tobin (1992): Dossier. La couleur du cinéma. In: Positif, 375–376, May, pp. 121–158, on pp. 150–151. (in French) View Quote

Measurements

Absorbances measured with a multispectral imaging system from film areas with pure dyes. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Dyes’ absorbances extracted with a statistical method from multispectral image capture. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Dyes’ absorbances extracted with a statistical method from multispectral image capture. Credit: Giorgio Trumpy, ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors.

 

Restoration

Afra, Kia (2015): Becky Sharp, Technicolor, and the Historiography of Film Style. In: Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 32,2, pp. 99–123, on pp. 102–103. View Quote

Aubert, Michelle (1992): Pour une déontologie de la restauration des films en couleur. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 25–28, on pp. 26–27. (in French) View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (2005): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, p. 166. View Quote

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 9. (in German) View Quote

Fisher, Bob (1998): The Restoration of Oz. In: American Cinematographer, 79,12, Dec., pp. 107–110, on pp. 107–110. View Quote

Gitt, Robert; Dayton, Richard (1984): Restoring Becky Sharp. In: American Cinematographer, 65,10, pp. 99–106. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 9–13 View Quote and on pp. 58–60. View Quote

O’Connell, Bill (1979): Fade Out. In: Film Comment, 15,5, pp. 11-18, on p. 12 View Quote, on p. 13 View Quote, on pp. 14-15 View Quote, on p. 15 View Quote and on p. 17. View Quote

Slide, Anthony (1985): The Return of Becky Sharp. In: Films in Review, 36, Mar., pp. 148–153. View Quote

Spehr, Paul C. (1979): Fading, Fading, Faded. The Colour Film in Crisis. In: American Film, Nov., pp. 56–61, on pp. 56–59. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Paolo Cherchi Usai. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 208–218, on pp. 215–218. View Quote

Watkins, Liz (2013): Interview. Sonia Genaitay. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 200–207, on p. 201 and on pp. 205–207. View Quote

Contemporary Reception

Anonymous (1935): Color’s Future Depends on Costs. In: Variety. July 13, p. 5. View Quote

Ashton, George (1954): Colour at the Cinema. In: The British Journal of Photography, 101, 25 June 1954, pp. 324–325, on p. 324 View Quote, on pp. 324–325 View Quote and on p. 325. View Quote

Betancourt, Gilbert (1937): Present Color Trend is Toward Subdued Hues. In: American Cinematographer, Aug. 1937, p. 317 and p. 352. View Quote

Brown, Simon; Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (eds.) (2013): Interview. Frank Littlejohn. In: British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 139–146, on pp. 141–145. View Quote

Cardiff, Jack (1996): Magic Hour. London, Boston: Faber and Faber, pp. 46–48 View Quote, p. 50 View Quote, pp. 51–53 View Quote, pp. 54–55 View Quote, pp. 56-58 View Quote, pp. 59–60 View Quote, pp. 62-64 View Quote and pp. 67–71. View Quote

Cauda, Ernesto (1935): Il sistema Technicolor. In: Cinematografia italiana, 1,1, p. 7. (in Italian) View Quote

Cauda, Ernesto (1938): Il cinema a colori. Quaderno mensile. Roma: Bianco e nero, anno II, nr. 11, on p. 103. (in Italian) View Quote

Dougherty, Kathryn (1935): Photoplay Close-Ups and Long-Shots. In: Photoplay, 48,3, pp. 21-22. View Quote

Elliott, Eric (1934): Wither colour? In: Cinema Quarterly, 2,3, Spring, pp. 161–165. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (1999): Technology and Aesthetics. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in the Late 1930s. In: Film History, 11,1, pp. 55–76, on pp 56–57. View Quote

Hughes, Pennethorne (1933): The Colour of It. In: Cinema Quarterly, 2,1, Autumn, pp. 16–18. View Quote

Jones, Robert Edmond (1938): The Problem of Color. In: The New York Times, Feb. View Quote

Lye, Len (1940): The Man Who Was Colourblind. In: Sight and Sound, 9,33, Spring 1940, pp. 6–7. View Quote

Mastin, Mildred (1935): Will Your Favorite Star Survive Color?. In: Photoplay, 47,2, pp. 26–27 and pp. 104–105. View Quote

Meder, Thomas (1999): Die Volksgemeinschaft in Farbe. In: Weltwunder der Kinematographie, 5, 1999, pp. 107-116, on p. 108. (in German) View Quote

Reid, James (1937): We Cover The Studios. In: Photoplay, 51,2, pp. 58-59. View Quote

Reid, James (1937): We Cover the Studios. In: Photoplay, 51,10, pp. 52-53 and p. 70. View Quote

Theisen, Earl (1936): Notes on the History of Color in Motion Pictures. In: International Photographer, 8,5, June 1936, pp. 8-9 and p. 24. View Quote


 

A Star Is Born (USA 1937, William A. Wellman):
Anonymous (1937): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. A Star Is Born. In: Photoplay, LI,7, Jul., p. 60. View Quote

Bailey, Kent (1937): A Star Is Born Again. In: Photoplay, LI,7, Jul., p. 96. View Quote

Olimsky, Fritz (1937): Farbfilme in Venedig. Deutschland-Film ein grosser Fortschritt. In: Neue Leipziger Zeitung, Aug. (in German) View Quote
(This text was published in Neue Leipziger Zeitung, an official newspaper of the NSDAP, which supported nazi politics and ideology.)

 


 

Becky Sharp (USA 1935, Rouben Mamoulian):
Anonymous (1934): Becky Sharp. In: Variety, 31 December 1934. View Quote

Anonymous (1935): Color on the Screen. In: New York Times, Jun., p. 14. View Quote

Anonymous (1935): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. Becky Sharp. In: Photoplay, 48,4, p. 66. View Quote

Grant, Jack (1935): Will Becky Sharp Revolutionize Hollywood? In: Photoplay, 48,3, pp. 24-25 and pp. 100-101. View Quote

Sennwald, Andre (1935): Becky Sharp (1935). In: New York Times, June 14, 1935. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 71–72. View Quote

Waterbury, Ruth (1936): Close Ups and Long Shots. In: Photoplay, 49,4, pp. 11-12. View Quote


 

Blood and Sand (USA 1941, Rouben Mamoulian):
Anonymous (1941): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. Blood and Sand. In: Photoplay, 19,3, Aug., p. 102. View Quote


 

Gone with the Wind (USA 1939, Victor Fleming):
Anonymous (1940): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. Gone With the Wind. In: Photoplay, LIV,2, Feb., p. 62. View Quote


 

Moulin Rouge (GBR 1952, John Huston):
Anonymous (1951): Moulin Rouge. In: Variety, 31 December 1951. View Quote

Anonymous (1953): Brief Reviews. In: Photoplay, 43,4, Apr., p. 112. View Quote


 

The Tales of Hoffmann (GBR 1951, Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger):
Brown, Simon; Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (eds.) (2013): Interview. Dave Davis. In: British Colour Cinema. Practices and Theories. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 125–130. View Quote


 

The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (USA 1936, Henry Hathaway):
Waterbury, Ruth (1936): Close Ups and Long Shots. In: Photoplay, 49,4, pp. 11-12. View Quote


 

The Thief of Bagdad (GBR 1940, Ludwig Berger, Michael Powell, Tim Whelan):
Huntley, John (1949): British Technicolor Films. Cornhill, London: Skelton Robinson, pp. 44–47. View Quote


 

Victoria the Great (GBR 1937, Herbert Wilcox):
Olimsky, Fritz (1937): Farbfilme in Venedig. Deutschland-Film ein grosser Fortschritt. In: Neue Leipziger Zeitung, Aug. (in German) View Quote
(This text was published in Neue Leipziger Zeitung, an official newspaper of the NSDAP, which supported nazi politics and ideology.)


 

Wings of the Morning (GBR 1937, Harold D. Schuster):
Anonymous (1937): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. Wings of the Morning. In: Photoplay, LI,4, Apr., p. 102. View Quote

Selected Analyses

A Matter of Life and Death (GBR 1946, Michael Powell/Emeric Pressburger):
Costa de Beauregard, Raphaëlle (2009): Technicolor and Jack Cardiff’s Art and Craft in Powell and Pressburger’s Matter of Life and Death (1946). In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 225–236, on pp. 226–236. View Quote

Ellis, John (1978): Watching Death at Work. An Analysis of A Matter of Life and Death. In: Ian Christie (ed.): Powell, Pressburger and Others. London: BFI, pp. 79–104, on pp. 79–80 View Quote and on pp. 94–96. View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 58–60. (in German) View Quote

Misek, Richard (2010): Chromatic Cinema. A History of Screen Color. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, on pp. 33–34. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 156–157. (in Italian) View Quote


 

A Star is Born (USA 1937, William A. Wellman):
Higgins, Scott (1999): Technology and Aesthetics. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in the Late 1930s. In: Film History, 11,1, pp. 55-76, on pp. 67-76. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 91–92 View Quote, on pp. 109–113 View Quote, on. pp. 115–124 View Quote and on pp. 197–198. View Quote

Holden, Lansing C. (1937): Color! The New Language of the Screen. In: Cinema Arts, 1,2, July 1937, p. 64, on p. 64. View Quote


 

An American in Paris (USA 1951, Vincente Minnelli):
Ames, Preston (1951): The Ballet (An American in Paris). In: Production Design, 1,11, pp. 6–9, on pp. 6–8. View Quote

Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 36–37. View Quote


 

Babes in the Woods (USA 1932, Disney):
Telotte, J.P. (2004): Minor Hazards. Disney and the Color Adventure. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 30–39, on pp. 34–35. View Quote


 

Becky Sharp (USA 1935, Rouben Mamoulian):
Afra, Kia (2015): Becky Sharp, Technicolor, and the Historiography of Film Style. In: Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 32,2, pp. 99–123, on pp. 99–101 View Quote, on pp. 104–108 View Quote, on p. 114 View Quote and on pp. 116–117. View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 54–58. View Quote

Behlmer, Rudy (1964): Technicolor. In: Films in Review, 15,6, pp. 333–351, on p. 346. View Quote

Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 112 View Quote, on p. 113 View Quote and on p. 116. (in French) View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 62–64. (in German) View Quote

Herring, Robert (1935): Technicolossal. In: Life and Letters Today, 13, Sep., pp. 194–196, on pp. 194–195. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2000): Demonstrating Three-Colour Technicolor: “Early Three-Colour Aesthetics and Design”. In: Film History, Vol. 12, No. 4, Color Film (2000), pp. 358-383, on p. 376. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 49-71.View Quote

Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on p. 192. View Quote

Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on p. 217. View Quote

Mamoulian, Rouben (1935): Some Problems in Directing Color Pictures. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, pp. 148–153. Download PDF

Mamoulian, Rouben (1960): Color and Light in Films. The Esthetics of Colour. In: Film Culture, 21, pp. 68–79, on pp. 74–75. View Quote

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 33–35. (in Italian) View Quote

Slide, Anthony (1985): The Return of Becky Sharp. In: Films in Review, 36, Mar., pp. 148–153, on pp. 150–151. View Quote


 

Black Narcissus (GBR 1947, Michael Powell/Emeric Pressburger):
Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 58–60.) (in German) View Quote

Mamoulian, Rouben (1960): Color and Light in Films. The Esthetics of Colour. In: Film Culture, 21, pp. 68–79, on p. 76. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 157–158. (in Italian) View Quote

Street, Sarah (2009): ‘Colour Consciousness’. Natalie Kalmus and Technicolor in Britain. In: Screen, 50,2, p. 191‒215, on pp. 209–212. View Quote


 

Blood and Sand (USA 1941, Rouben Mamoulian):
Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 127–129. View Quote

Brinckmann, Christine N. (2015): Blood and Sand. Die Farben der Malerei. In: Connie Betz et al. (Hg.): Glorious Technicolor. Berlin: Bertz + Fischer, S. 89–101. (in German) Download PDF


 

Caesar and Cleopatra (GBR 1945, Gabriel Pascal):
Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 57–60. (in German) View Quote


 

Cover Girl (USA 1944, Charles Vidor):
Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on p. 211. View Quote


 

Dallas (USA 1951, Stuart Heisler):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 118.) (in French) View Quote


 

Dreams That Money Can Buy (USA 1944-46, Hans Richter):

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 49–50. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Drums Along the Mohawk (USA 1939, John Ford):
Heckman, Heather (2013): The Cameraman and the Glamour-Puss. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in John Ford’s Drums Along the Mohawk. In: Brown, Simon; Street, Sarah; Watkins, Liz (2013): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 160-169. View Quote


 

Easter Parade (USA 1948, Charles Walters):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 114.) (in French) View Quote


 

Flowers and Trees (USA 1932, Disney):
Telotte, J.P. (2004): Minor Hazards. Disney and the Color Adventure. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 30–39, on pp. 33–34. View Quote


 

For Whom the Bell Tolls (USA 1943, Sam Wood):
Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on p. 216. View Quote


 

Giulietta e Romeo/Romeo and Juliet (ITA 1954, Renato Castellani):
Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on pp. 197–200. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Gone With the Wind (USA 1939, R: Victor Fleming):
Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 9-10 View Quote and on pp. 174-207. View Quote


 

Henry V (GBR 1944, Laurence Olivier):
Andrew, Dudley (1980): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 45. View Quote

Mamoulian, Rouben (1960): Color and Light in Films. The Esthetics of Colour. In: Film Culture, 21, pp. 68–79, on pp. 77–78. View Quote

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 39–40. (in Italian) View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on pp. 192–199. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Ivanhoe (USA 1952, Richard Thorpe):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 113 View Quote and on p. 114. (in French) View Quote

Jack Cardiff, cinematographer, A Matter of Life and Death, Black Narcissus, The Red Shoes, Under Capricorn:
Birchard, Robert S. (2006): A Master’s Palette. Jack Cardiff, BSC Reminisces About his Achievements with Technicolor’s Three-strip Process. In: American Cinematographer, March 2006, pp. 58-65. View Quote


 

Joan of Arc (USA 1948, Victor Fleming):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 118.) (in French) View Quote


 

King Solomon’s Mines (USA 1950, Compton Bennett/Andrew Marton):
Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on p. 214. View Quote


 

La Cucaracha (USA 1934, Lloyd Corrigan):
Higgins, Scott (2000): Demonstrating Three-Colour Technicolor. Early Three-Colour Aesthetics and Design. In: Film History, 12,4, pp. 358–383, on pp. 364–371. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. 32–39. View Quote

Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on p. 191. View Quote


 

Leave Her to Heaven (USA 1945, John M. Stahl):
Higgins, Scott (2013): Chromo-Drama. Innovation and Convention in Douglas Sirk’s Color Designs. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 170-178, on pp. 173-174. View Quote

Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on pp. 219–220. View Quote


 

Magnificent Obsession (USA 1954, Douglas Sirk):
Kappelhoff, Hermann; Greifenstein, Sarah (2014): Feeling Gloomy or Riding High. Timings of Melodrama and Comedy. In: Marie-Luise Angerer, Michaela Ott and Bernd Bösel (eds.): Timing of Affect. Epistemologies, Aesthetics, Politics. Zürich: Diaphanes, pp. 263–282, on pp. 267–271 View Quote and on p. 279. View Quote


 

Moulin Rouge (GBR 1952, John Huston):
A.D. (1953): Die Farbe ist kein Star. In: Bild und Ton, 6,11, p. 349, on p. 349. (in German) View Quote

Bergala, Alain (1995): La couleur, la Nouvelle Vague et ses maîtres des années cinquante. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Milan: Mazzotta, pp. 126–136, on p. 133. (in French) View Quote

Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on p. 193. View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on pp. 9–10. View Quote


 

Musical Poster Number One (GBR 1940, Len Lye):
Horrocks, Roger (2001): Len Lye. A Biography. Auckland University Press., on p. 179. View Quote


 

Phantom of the Opera (USA 1943, Arthur Lubin):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 114.) (in French) View Quote


 

Rope (USA 1948, Alfred Hitchcock):
Allen, Richard (2006): Hitchcock’s Color Designs. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 131–144, on p. 137. View Quote

Jacobs, Steven (2013): Color and Containment. Domestic Spaces and Restrained Palettes in Hitchcock’s First Color Films. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 179–188, on pp. 179–187. View Quote


 

Samson and Delilah (USA 1949, Cecil B. DeMille):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 111. (in French) View Quote


 

Senso (ITA 1954, Luchino Visconti):
Pierotti, Federico (2016): Un’archeologia del colore nel cinema italiano. Dal Technicolor ad Antonioni. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, on p. 196. (in Italian) View Quote


 

Silly Symphonies:
Moen, Kristian (2010): “The Miracle of our century”. Sergei Eisenstein, Élie Faure and Colour in the Silly Symphonies. In: Screen, 51, pp. 383–389. View Quote


 

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (USA 1937, Maxwell Morgan):
Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 173–174. View Quote


 

Summer Holiday (USA 1948, Rouben Mamoulian):
Mamoulian, Rouben (1960): Color and Light in Films. The Esthetics of Colour. In: Film Culture, 21, pp. 68–79, on p. 78. View Quote


 

The Adventures of Robin Hood (USA 1938, Michael Curtiz, William Keighley):
Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 84–88. View Quote

Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on pp. 113–114.) (in French) View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s, on pp. pp. 137–171. View Quote


 

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (USA 1938, Norman Taurog):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 117. (in French) View Quote

Howe, James Wong (1937): Reaction on Making His First Color Production. In: American Cinematographer, 18, October 1937, pp. 408–409 and pp. 411–412, on pp. 408–409 View Quote, on p. 409 and on p. 411 View Quote, on p. 411 View Quote and on p. 412. View Quote


 

The Band Concert (USA 1935, Disney):
Telotte, J.P. (2004): Minor Hazards. Disney and the Color Adventure. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 30–39, on pp. 35–36. View Quote


 

The Black Swan (USA 1942, Henry King):
Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on pp. 218–219. View Quote

Misek, Richard (2010): Chromatic Cinema. A History of Screen Color. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, on p. 126. View Quote


 

The Boy with Green Hair (USA 1948, Joseph Losey):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 116.) (in French) View Quote


 

The Four Feathers (GBR 1939, Zoltan Korda):
Costa de Beauregard, Raphaëlle (2009): Technicolor and Jack Cardiff’s Art and Craft in Powell and Pressburger’s Matter of Life and Death (1946). In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 225–236 on p. 230. View Quote


 

The Garden of Allah (USA 1936, Richard Boleslawski):
Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on p. 135. View Quote

Keating, Patrick (2010): Hollywood Lighting from the Silent Era to Film Noir. Columbia University Press: New York, on p. 214 View Quote and on p. 216. View Quote


 

The Mikado (GBR 1939, Victor Schertzinger):
Street, Sarah (2012): Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, on pp. 49–50. View Quote


 

The Red Shoes (GBR 1948, Michael Powell/Emeric Pressburger):
Engelke, Henning; Hochscherf, Tobias (2014): Colour Magic at Pinewood. Hein Heckroth, The Archers and Avant-Garde Production Design in The Red Shoes (1948). In: Journal of Design History, 28,1, pp. 48–66, on p. 53 View Quote and on pp. 55–56. View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 64–70. (in German) View Quote


 

The River (FRA/GBR/IND/USA 1951, Jean Renoir):
Bergala, Alain (1995): La couleur, la Nouvelle Vague et ses maîtres des années cinquante. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Milan: Mazzotta, pp. 126–136, on pp. 131–132. (in French) View Quote


 

The Pirate (USA 1948, Vincente Minnelli):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 114.) (in French) View Quote


 

The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (USA 1939, Michael Curtiz):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 112 View Quote and on p. 117. (in French) View Quote


 

The Tales of Hoffmann (GBR 1951, Michael Powell/Emeric Pressburger):
Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 64–74. (in German) View Quote


 

The Wizard of Oz (USA 1939, Vicotr Fleming):
Basten, Fred E. (1980): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes, on pp. 95–98. View Quote

Bellantoni, Patti (2005): If It’s Purple, Someone’s Gonna Die. The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Taylor & Francis, on pp. 5–8. View Quote

Turner, George (1998): Behind the Curtain. A cadre of creative minds infused MGM’s classic fantasy The Wizard of Oz a timeless supply of movie magic. In: American Cinematographer, 79,12, on pp. 100–106. View Quote

Turner, George (1999): The Wizard of Oz. In: American Cinematographer, 80,3, on p. 108. View Quote


 

Three Little Pigs (USA 1933, Burt Gillett):
Jacobs, Lewis (1970): The Mobility of Color. In: Lewis Jacobs (ed.): The Movies as Medium. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 189–196, on p. 190. View Quote


 

Trade Tattoo (GBR 1937, Len Lye)
Horrocks, Roger (2001): Len Lye. A Biography. Auckland University Press., on pp. 151–152. View Quote


 

Under Capricorn (GBR 1949, Alfred Hitchcock):
Allen, Richard (2006): Hitchcock’s Color Designs. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 131–144, on pp. 136–137. View Quote

Jacobs, Steven (2013): Color and Containment. Domestic Spaces and Restrained Palettes in Hitchcock’s First Color Films. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 179–188, on pp. 179–187. View Quote


 

Vogues of 1938 (USA 1937, Irving Cummings):
Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La couleur au cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta, pp. 110–119, on p. 112. (in French) View Quote


 

Western Approaches (GBR 1944, Pat Jackson):
Kassel Siambani, Elena von (2009): Colour in the British Documentary Film Movement. From Colour Box (1935) to Western Approaches (1944). In: Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard (ed.): Cinéma et couleur. Paris: M. Houdiard, pp. 219–224, on p. 223. View Quote


 

Wings of the Morning (GBR 1937, Harold D. Schuster):
Huntley, John (1949): British Technicolor Films. Cornhill, London: Skelton Robinson, on pp. 20–25. View Quote

Montesanti, Fausto (1954): Lineamenti di una storia del film a colori. In: Giuseppe Sala (ed.): Bianco e Nero. Il colore nel cinema. Rassegna mensile di studi cinematografici, XV,2-4, pp. 11–51, on pp. 38–39. (in Italian) View Quote

Slide, Anthony (1986): Wings of the Morning, an Important Film. In: American Cinematographer, 67,2, pp. 36–40, on pp. 39–40. View Quote

Street, Sarah (2009): ‘Colour Consciousness’. Natalie Kalmus and Technicolor in Britain. In: Screen, 50,2, pp. 191‒215, on pp. 199–206. View Quote