Zoechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Wolff-Heide

additive three-color: Integrated filters and rotary filter
Much like many other additive processes, the Wolff-Heide system was based on three black and white color separations printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through a rotary filter attached to the projector. However, the biggest ...

Warner-Powrie

Additive 3 color: Line screen
“The Warner-Powrie process patented in 1905 was the earliest commercial process using a screen made with bichromated colloid. A glass plate was thinly coated with bichromated gelatin or fish glue and exposed to light through a screen having ...

Vitacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Single coated

Versicolor-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Vericolor

Subtractive 2 color: unknown

40 Images

Urban-Joy Process, improvement of Kinemacolor, later called Kinekrom

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“In the design of apparatus Urban was assisted after 1905 by Henry W. Joy. The Urban-Joy perforator appeared in 1906. The Urban-Joy anti-firing device, a shutter to prevent the firing of inflammable film when projectors broke down, was another ...

Unidentified Processes

Various

Photographs of unidentified color film technologies. Several different principles and times. Feel free to contact us if you can help identifying them!

295 Images in 4 Galleries

Ulysse

Two, three or four color color additive process: multiple lenses
The process relied on two-, three- or even four-color selections being superimposed on the screen. On the positive, two, three or four images of reduced dimensions were printed on a single frame with a longitudinal and lateral distance corresponding ...

Ufacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

135 Images in 7 Galleries

Trucolor 3 color

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation on DuPont Release Positive Film

Trucolor 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated with dye couplers
“By the 1940s, most of the two-colour subtractive processes, apart from Cinecolor, were obsolete. The widespread use of the high-quality Technicolor process showed up the serious deficiencies in the simpler methods. The only significant new ...

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Traube / Uvachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Mordanting, dye transfer, wash-off relief, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

3 Images

Traube / Diachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Mordant toning, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Toning / metallic toning (French: virage, German: Tonung)

Applied colors: Replacement of silver

In contrast to tinting, toning is not the simple immersion of a film into a dye bath but involves a chemical reaction converting the silver image. In this reaction the neutral silver image in the emulsion of the positive film is replaced by one consisting of colored metal compounds. These were usually iron ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) for blue, copper ferrocyanide for red/brown, silver sulfide for sepia or rarely uranium ferrocyanide for reddish brown. Toning had been used in still photography before. But since film was projected on the screen it required translucent toning compounds.

1549 Images in 62 Galleries

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...

1 Image

Tinting (French: teintage, German: Virage)

Applied colors: Dyed gelatin

For tinting, the positive print is immersed into a variety of dye baths, scene by scene. To this end, the print has to be cut into the corresponding fragments and reassembled after the dyeing process. The dye homogeneously attaches over the entire image’s gelatin including the perforation area. Usually synthetic dyes were dissolved in a weak acid solution to form a chemical bond with the gelatin.

4455 Images in 109 Galleries

Tinted film base / Kodak Sonochrome

Applied colors: Tinted film for sound films
Kodak Sonochrome was a specially prepared tinted film for sound film that did not interfere with the spectral sensitivity of the photo-electric cell for the reading of the optical sound track. The 17 Sonochrome tints were dyed in mainly light hues ...

79 Images in 3 Galleries

Thornton

Additive two-color or four-color process: beam splitter and mosaic screen, films
In this process, two positives, one orange-red one blue-green, were cemented together. Several specifications and modifications exist, for instance the strengthening of the perforated film margins via a second exposure, in an attempt to overcome wear ...

Thomson Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

3 Images

Thomascolor

Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm

2 Images

Theory of three-color photography

Theory

11 Images

1 Image

Telco Color, additive 2 color

Additive 2 color: Split optics, side by side

Telco color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Split optics, side by side, duplitized film

1 Image

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer
In 1994, Technicolor announced the development of an enhanced dye-transfer process. This process became effective in  June 1997. There was no official denomination, so “Technicolor No. VI” is not to be confused with statements from the mid ...

Technicolor No. V: Dye transfer prints from chromogenic negative

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer
With the introduction of the chromogenic Eastmancolor negative/positive process it became possible to shoot with a normal one-strip camera. Three b/w color separations were produced from the Eastmancolor negative and printed by dye transfer on blank ...

2257 Images in 41 Galleries

Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, beam-splitter, dye transfer
With the fourth Technicolor process the company dominated the market for color films from the mid-1930s to the 1950s. In a special camera, three b/w negative films were exposed through a beam-splitter that consisted of two prisms to form a cube. One ...

1859 Images in 65 Galleries

Technicolor No. III

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, dye transfer

The third Technicolor process used the same camera as process no. II to combine a pair of frames of the red and green record respectively on the b/w negative (see image). In contrast to the former process, however, the two images were printed on one side of the positive by the dye transfer or imbibition process.

1296 Images in 37 Galleries