Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Color theory

Additive 3 color: Additive 3 color, still photography
“In a lecture on the theory of three primary colors, given at the Royal Institution of Great Britain on May 17, 1861, Maxwell presented the first demonstration of a photograph in color. According to the records of that meeting (Maxwell, 1890c, ...

1 Image

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography
“Louis Ducos du Hauron is reported to have become interested in the reproduction of colors by photography in 1859, when he was twentyone years old (Potonniée, 1939). In 1862 he submitted to a friend of his family, M. Lelut, a paper embodying ...

2 Images

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory
Description of a variety of color processes, even for images in motion by the use of a rotary shutter.

Orthochromatic stock

b/w photography: Orthochromatic b/w stock
“In 1873 Dr Vogel discovered that by adding dyes to the sensitive material, its sensitivity could be extended, so that it would record green as well as blue. The new ‘orthochromatic’ plates were available commercially from 1882. The ...

2 Images

1 Image

Hydrotypie / Hydrotype / dye transfer

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Sensitizing theory

Color theory
“Dr. H. W. Vogel, the discoverer of colour sensitizers, made three-colour photography possible, and has been the first to recognise the relation between colour sensitiveness of plate and printing colour in the following principle made known in ...

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach
“Probably the first use of the catalytic property of silver was in 1889, when E. Howard Farmer disclosed the action of a silver image upon strong dichromate solutions (Eng. P. 17773/89). When a plate or film, containing a silver image, is immersed ...

Lippmann

Direct color photography: Interference, still photography
“In 1891, Professor Gabriel Lippmann demonstrated to the French Académie des Sciences interference colour photographs of the spectrum and of stained glass windows, taken by a modification of Wiener’s method. An exceedingly fine grained, ...

5 Images

Hand coloring

Applied colors: Manual application

Coloring of individual frames by the use of very fine brushes. The process was previously applied to lantern slides. Any water based translucent dye was suited for the process, most often the coloring was done with acid dyes.

211 Images in 13 Galleries

Chromogenic development

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic development

Toning / metallic toning (French: virage, German: Tonung)

Applied colors: Replacement of silver

In contrast to tinting, toning is not the simple immersion of a film into a dye bath but involves a chemical reaction converting the silver image. In this reaction the neutral silver image in the emulsion of the positive film is replaced by one consisting of colored metal compounds. These were usually iron ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) for blue, copper ferrocyanide for red/brown, silver sulfide for sepia or rarely uranium ferrocyanide for reddish brown. Toning had been used in still photography before. But since film was projected on the screen it required translucent toning compounds.

1514 Images in 57 Galleries

Tinting (French: teintage, German: Virage)

Applied colors: Dyed gelatin

For tinting, the positive print is immersed into a variety of dye baths, scene by scene. To this end, the print has to be cut into the corresponding fragments and reassembled after the dyeing process. The dye homogeneously attaches over the entire image’s gelatin including the perforation area. Usually synthetic dyes were dissolved in a weak acid solution to form a chemical bond with the gelatin.

4123 Images in 98 Galleries

Joly

Additive 3 color: Line screen process, still photography
“In 1894 Professor John Joly of Dublin patented a process for producing a screen of red, green and blue-violet lines by ruling them on a gelatin-coated glass plate. Joly used ruling machines of great accuracy, with drawing pens trailed across ...

7 Images

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...

4 Images

Isensee

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The first patent that has been found was granted to H. Isensee and he placed in front of the lens, both in taking and projection, a rotary shutter with three 120 degrees sectors in the usual colors.” (Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of ...

2 Images

Theory of three-color photography

Theory

11 Images

Friese-Greene

Additive 2 or 3 color: Alternately stained

“In 1898 William Friese-Greene, a professional portrait photographer by trade, demonstrated in London ‘the first process of true natural-color cinematography.’ His program consisted of  ‘a series of animated natural-color pictures,’ and although this demonstration aroused considerable interest at the time, Friese-Greene was unable to exploit this system on a profitable basis. Undaunted, he eventually developed a total of four different color methods.”

112 Images in 2 Galleries

Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Apparently, associated with W. Friese-Greene, in the same year, Captain William Norman Lascelles-Davidson, also of Brighton, patented a triple lens motion picture camera (E.P. 23,863, 1898). The colour filters revolved either behind the lenses, ...

1 Image

Chromolithography

Applied colors: printing
Widely used in print media around 1900, the chromolithographic printing process was first adapted for the Laterna Magica and then utilized to produce early animated films primarily aimed at children. These films were usually very short ...

105 Images in 3 Galleries

Lee and Turner

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Frederick Marshall Lee, of Walton, and Edward Raymond Turner, of Hounslow, to whom is usually accorded the credit of achieving the first practical results in additive projection. Their experimental work was financed by Charles Urban, a ...

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Unidentified Processes

Various

Photographs of unidentified color film technologies. Several different principles and times. Feel free to contact us if you can help identifying them!

295 Images in 4 Galleries

Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...

7 Images

Bi-pack

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, still photography
A. Gurtner (Eng. P. 7924/03; U.S.P. 730454), used a front element that was sensitive only to the blue, and a rear element that was sensitive up to but not including the red. He was the first person to suggest that the two films or plates be placed ...

1 Image

Pathécolor / Pathéchrome / stencil coloring

Applied colors: Stencil, dyed gelatin
Stencil coloring required the manual cutting, frame by frame, of the area which was to be tinted onto another identical print, one for each color. Usually the number of colors applied ranged from 3 to 6. The process was highly improved by the ...

2139 Images in 71 Galleries

Jumeaux/Davidson

Additive 3 color: Prism

2 Images

Pinatype / Pinatypie

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

4 Images

Monopack stripping

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack, stripping, still photography
“To offset the possible effects of poor contact between the various members of the tripack, J. H. Smith coated the emulsions directly one on top of the other, but with an insulating layer of collodion between them. In this manner there was ...

1 Image

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...

1 Image

Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

1 Image

Katachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack silver dye-bleach, still photography
Karl Schinzel proposed a multi-layered monopack for still photography, based on the principle of the dye-bleach process which was later elaborated to a practical application with Gasparcolor.

Predecessor of Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Then we come upon the name of George Albert Smith, F.R.A.S., of Laboratory Lodge, Roman Crescent, Southwick, Brighton, who in E.P. 26,671, of 1906, patented the method which eventually was commercialized as Kinemacolor. In this patent he ...

Traube / Diachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Mordant toning, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Autochrome

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen, still photography
“The Autochrome process was the first fully practical single-plate colour process to reach the photographic public. It was easy to use. The plate was loaded into a conventional holder, glass to the front. The exposure was made through a yellow ...

16 Images

Dye coupling

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
“One of the most elegant solutions to the problem of forming a colored image, lies in the utilization of the products formed by the action of the developer upon the latent image. By this means there is formed a dye image whose intensity follows ...

1 Image

Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter

Kinemacolor was an additive process operated with alternating red and green filters that were applied to the shutter in front of the camera and in front of the projector. With at least 32 fps the frame rate was double the minimal frame rate of 16 fps. Time parallax with small differences between the red and green record resulted in color fringes that became visible when objects or scenes were moving.

13 Images in 3 Galleries

Procédé Colombier

Subtractive 3 color: Tri-pack
“M. F. de Colombier appears to have been the first to suggest the application of this system to cinematography, and like so many French patents it is a little indefinite in phraseology. Three films were employed representing the same view and ...

Dufay / Dioptichrome Plate (sometimes incorrectly referenced as Dioptochrome)

Additive 2-4 color: Line screen plate (réseau), still photography and early experiments with film
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)

10 Images

Berthon

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“R. Berthon patented the use of a lens diaphragm with three apertures, covered respectively with red, green and blue-violet filters, and a sensitive surface on a support, the other side of which was impressed with hemi-spherical, transparent, ...

4 Images

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...

171 Images in 7 Galleries

Bassani

Additive 3 color: Successive exposure, 72 fps
“Camera.—An interesting camera has been made by the Société Chromofilm, Paris. An astonishing mechanism moves the entire gate, and film within it, at each exposure, with reference to the normal fixed objective. Three miniature negatives are ...

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Audibert

Additive 3 color: Prism
“R. Berthon and M. Audibert patented a method of obtaining a virtual image by means of an anterior lens and prisms or mirrors. This idea was further improved upon in E.P. 17,023, 1913. In F.P. 458,040 Audibert proposed to use a negative front lens ...

2 Images

Biocolour

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images
“Inevitably, the success of Kinemacolor led to the appearance of imitations. One company, Friese Greene Patents Ltd had been formed in 1908 to exploit several patents, mostly impractical, filed by Friese Greene. From this came a new company, ...

32 Images in 2 Galleries

Chromogenic film stock

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Colorgraph / Cinecolorgraph

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film
“The principle of the subtractive colour process was described first by Louis Ducos du Hauron in 1868. Although eminently suitable for colour motion pictures, the principle could not be applied until means were found of producing several colour ...

1 Image

Gaumont Chronochrome

Additive 3 color: Sawn-off lenses and filters, simultaneous taking and projection
“The competition between Kinemacolor and other rival systems was partially stimulated by a Utopian faith in the potential of film technology to achieve ‘natural colour’, reality ‘as it is’ being the goal of the cinematic ...

12 Images in 2 Galleries

Colcin

Additive 2 color: Simultaneous 1 strip
“The first two-colour additive method in which the two components were taken and projected simultaneously was the Colcin process, in 1913. The result of a Franco-Japanese collaboration, it was demonstrated at the International Kinematographic ...

1 Image

Cinechrome

Additive 2 color: Prism, rotary filter, double-sized film
“[…] pictures were taken side by side, full-size, on double-width film, the film not only being perforated on the edges but also down the centre between the pairs of images.” (Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour ...

3 Images

Biochrom

Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Brewster

Subtractive 2 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“Following the premises of one of William Friese-Greene’s systems, this two-colour subtractive process required that two reels of film be printed in parallel through a lens fitted with a prism that split light in two directions, through red ...

Kodachrome Two-color 1915, after 1930 renamed Fox Nature Color

Subtractive 2 color process: Beam-splitter, double-coated film

The Kodachrome process was invented in 1913 by John G. Capstaff for still photography and subsequently adapted to motion pictures. For the process two frames were advanced simultaneously, one located above the other. The light passed either through two lenses or through a beam-splitter, fitted with red and green filters. The release print was exposed through a beam-splitter whereby the alternate frames were projected onto either side of double-coated stock. After development by a usual b/w process, the film was tanned to harden the exposed areas. The soft areas were dyed red-orange and blue-green respectively.

318 Images in 12 Galleries

Urban-Joy Process, improvement of Kinemacolor, later called Kinekrom

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“In the design of apparatus Urban was assisted after 1905 by Henry W. Joy. The Urban-Joy perforator appeared in 1906. The Urban-Joy anti-firing device, a shutter to prevent the firing of inflammable film when projectors broke down, was another ...

Handschiegl / DeMille-Wyckoff / Wyckoff Process

Applied color: Imbibition
Similar to stenciling, the Handschiegl process was applied mechanically to manually defined image parts. Therefore it is an applied color process. After the film was shot and edited, for each color applied a separate print was made. In contrast to ...

141 Images in 8 Galleries

Douglass Color No. 1

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“This two-color additive system for color cinematography was invented in 1916 by Leon Forrest Douglass of San Rafael, California. A special beam splitter camera would advance each roll of film two frames per exposure with its double frame pull down ...

3 Images

Technicolor No. I

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

During the capturing of the film a beam-splitter in combination with filters in the camera divided the incoming light into a red and a green separation negative on black-and-white stock. When projected in the cinema the two images were combined simultaneously by additive mixture through corresponding red and green filters into one picture consisting of red and green colored light. The reduction of the whole color range to two colors (and their additive combinations) was necessary because of the complex optical arrangement.

6 Images in 1 Gallery

Agfacolor Screen Plate

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen, still photography
“During the war, an important new screen plate appeared, based on patents taken out by J. H. Christensen in 1908. He proposed to make a concentrated solution of gum in alcohol. Divided into three parts, the gum solutions were dyed red, green ...

7 Images

Prizma I

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The color experiments were conducted in the basement of a house at 1586 E. Seventeenth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. During this time a double-coated stock and a bleach formula which had much to do with the success of the later Prizma process were ...

Panchromotion

Additive 4 color: Rotary filter
”Kelley’s first color process was a four-color additive system introduced in 1913. Called Panchromotion, Kelley formed a company which would exploit the process commercially and, he hoped, provide strong competition for Kinemacolor. He apparently ...

2 Images

Versicolor-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Talkicolor

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained
“Two-colour additive process Talkicolor was developed by Percy James Pearce along with Dr Anthony Bernardi who was also involved in the development of Raycol. The process was funded mainly by the author Elinor Glyn through her company Elinor ...

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Kesdacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Line screen filter, duplitized film stock
”The process as illustrated in USP 1431309 was a two-color additive process, but it is stated that it could be a three- or four-color process. For the original photography, the negative was exposed through a line screen composed of alternate bands ...

1 Image

Polychromide

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, later bi-pack, mordant dye
“Polychromide, a two-color subtractive process invented in 1918 by Aron Hamburger, achieved limited commercial success overseas, and was occasionally employed in England as late as 1933. Originally an orthochromatic and a panchromatic negative were ...

62 Images in 2 Galleries

Gilmore Color

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Gilmore’s two-color additive process was based on a patent granted to F. E. Ives in 1918. A unique optical system exposed two images in pairs, and quarter-turned them lengthwise side by side on standard 35 mm film stock. One of the images was ...

1 Image

Prizma II

Subtractive 2 color: Toning on double coated film
“In its final form Prizma made use of duplitized positive film. As in previous Prizma systems, the original negatives were alternate frame sequential exposures. The Prizma negative was printed on both sides of the positive film in a special ...

394 Images in 14 Galleries

Douglass Color No. 2

Subtractive 2 color: Separations, multi-layer prints
“Douglass Color No. 2 (1919). The two negatives of the Douglass Color system No. 1 were printed on a positive. In this updated version of the process, rather than projecting the frames through red and green filters, both latent images were ...

Cinekrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

Zoechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Technicolor No. II

Subtractive 2 color: 2 toned films cemented

The first subtractive 2 color process introduced by Technicolor captured the incoming light through a beam splitter with red and green filters also. However, in contrast to the first Technicolor process, the two b/w images were recorded on one negative strip. This was achieved by the pull-down of two frames simultaneously, a process that required the double speed in the camera. These two frames were arranged in pairs, whereby the green record was inverted up-side down (see image).

133 Images in 8 Galleries

Traube / Uvachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Mordanting, dye transfer, wash-off relief, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

3 Images

Colorcraft

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated

21 Images in 1 Gallery

Keller-Dorian

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

9 Images in 1 Gallery

Kelleycolor

Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer
“In 1919 Kelley produced a series of coloured cartoons which were drawn by Pinto Colvig. In 1924 he introduced “Kelleycolor,” which was an imbibition process. Two colours were imbibed on a black-and-white key image. In 1926 he ...

1 Image

Chromo-Film

Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Warner-Powrie

Additive 3 color: Line screen
“The Warner-Powrie process patented in 1905 was the earliest commercial process using a screen made with bichromated colloid. A glass plate was thinly coated with bichromated gelatin or fish glue and exposed to light through a screen having ...

Horst

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Szczepanik

Additive 3 color: Moving lenses
“The process of J. Szczepanik in 1925 was impracticable. He used a non-intermittent camera having a chain of eighteen lenses moving together with the film behind a collimating lens, three pictures being simultaneously exposed.” (Klein, ...

Cinecolor additive 2 color / Cinecolour

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

2 Images

Spicer-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm reversal
For a description of Spicer-Dufay see detail page on Dufaycolor)

78 Images in 2 Galleries

Auto Natural Color / Bernardi

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

Gevaert Positif Color

Applied colors: Pretinted film

Technic-Colour

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, duplitized

Busch Farbenfilm

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, red-green

5 Images in 1 Gallery

Hérault Trichrome

Additive 3 color: Alternately stained in red, green and blue
“The Hérault Trichrome process was demonstrated in Paris on 1 October 1926, with three films made by A. Rodde — a fashion show, a documentary on Brittany and a tableau of the Legend of the King of Ys. Hérault Trichrome was an extension of ...

12 Images in 1 Gallery

Cox Multicolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter

Technicolor No. III

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, dye transfer

The third Technicolor process used the same camera as process no. II to combine a pair of frames of the red and green record respectively on the b/w negative (see image). In contrast to the former process, however, the two images were printed on one side of the positive by the dye transfer or imbibition process.

1296 Images in 37 Galleries

Color Cinema Corporation

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated

2 Images

Lignose Naturfarbenfilm

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

3 Images

Kodacolor / Keller-Dorian Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“LENTICULAR PROCESS In 1896 R. E. Liesegang (Ahriman, 1896) suggested a photographic color process based upon the use of banded filters in the camera aperture. […] In 1909 R. Berthon (British Patent 10,611; see also Berthon, 1910a, b) ...

20 Images in 1 Gallery

Multicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized
“In the Multicolor (two-color) subtractive process, two negative films are run simultaneously through any standard camera with their emulsion surfaces in contact. The front negative is orthochromatic, with the surface layer dyed orange-red to ...

66 Images in 6 Galleries

Splendicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, bichromated gelatin, Pinatype

Tinted film base / Kodak Sonochrome

Applied colors: Tinted film for sound films
Kodak Sonochrome was a specially prepared tinted film for sound film that did not interfere with the spectral sensitivity of the photo-electric cell for the reading of the optical sound track. The 17 Sonochrome tints were dyed in mainly light hues ...

79 Images in 3 Galleries

Mroz Farbenfilm

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images, 9.5 and possibly 16 mm

Autochrome film / Cinécolor

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen
Several attempts were made to apply the Autochrome process invented by the Lumière brothers to motion pictures. Transparent potato starch grains with a diameter of 15-20 were colored in the additive primaries red, green and blue. The spaces between ...

20 Images in 2 Galleries

Harriscolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, single-coated
“Harriscolor In this method as in other methods of color photography, independent color value negatives are first obtained. The Harriscolor process can employ one of the following two methods: Either a camera wherein the dividing light prisms ...

3 Images

Raycol

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sawn-off lens

13 Images in 1 Gallery

Sirius

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
“The Dutch Sirius Color process (1929) used a camera with a beamsplitting system behind the lens to expose a single film, the film passing through two gates at right angles to each other. The double-coated print film was dye-toned. The process ...

118 Images in 2 Galleries

Agfa bipack films

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack
AGFA BIPACK FILM The front film is orthochromatic and sensitive, therefore, to green and blue. The rear film is panchromatic and records red-orange only, there being a red-orange filter on the orthochromatic emulsion. In fact, this is a bipack of the ...

11 Images in 1 Gallery

Finlay

Additive 3 color: Regular mosaic screen, still photography

9 Images in 1 Gallery

Photocolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

42 Images

Sennett Color

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double coated, toned
“Public showings of the work done at this plant in Hollywood have been given to Los Angeles audiences. The release prints are made on double sided film. Both sides are developed at one time and then toned red on one side and bluegreen on the ...

18 Images in 1 Gallery

Vitacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Single coated

Kislyn color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

1 Image

Brewster

Subtractive 2 or 3 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“The Brewster Process. (U.S.P. 1,752,477. 1930-) Camera. – P. D. Brewster, an American inventor, who was one of the first to apply the bipack system to colour cinematography, has a number of patents to his credit covering various cameras and ...

52 Images in 1 Gallery

Audibert

Addtive 3 color: Beam-splitter, mosaic screen, 65 mm

3 Images

Allfarbenfilm

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

DuPont Vitacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter, 16mm

Gualtierotti or Cicona e Gualtierotti

Additive two-color: optical system, filters, 64mm negative.
Unlike other additive systems invented in previous years, Gualtierotti tried to avoid the phenomenon of chromatic aberration inherent in the use of multiple lenses or the creation of successive separation records. The proposed solution was based on ...

1 Image

Magnachrome

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size

Coloratura

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, dupitized positive, toned
“Coloratura. This is the process of Pathé Exchange at Bound Brook, N. J. Negatives are made by the bi-pack method. Prints are made on double-sided film and are dye-toned on one side and metallic-toned on the other. The double-sided film, ...

Ufacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

54 Images in 2 Galleries

Chimicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, mordant toning

2 Images

Magnacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“An American two-colour subtractive process still worked by the Consolidated Film Industries division of Republic Pictures Corporation. This concern was licensed by the owners of the “Prizma” patents, which it will be remembered was ...

23 Images in 2 Galleries

Rotocolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“The Rotocolor process was an additive system for color cinematography. The process was announced in 1931 by H. Muller. According to an article in Film Daily, April 12, 1931, and The Motion Picture Herald, April 11, 1931, the process consisted of ...

Rota Farbenfilm

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

10 Images in 2 Galleries

Russian two-color system

Subtractive two color

1 Image

Chemicolor / Ufacolor in GB

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning
“Chemicoior was the name under which the German Ufacolor Process was marketed in Britain. Ufacolor was also marketed under the name Spectracolor. The process used Agfa bipack negatives loaded with the emulsion sides facing and separated by a ...

9 Images in 2 Galleries

Spectracolor (= British version of Ufacolor)

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

Agfacolor lenticular / Agfacolor Linsenrasterfilm

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
The basic idea of the lenticular film was developed by the German Raphaël Liesegang in 1896 and applied to still photography by the French Rodolphe Berthon in 1908. The lenticular process applies tiny cylindrical lenses embossed on the film support ...

15 Images

Rouxcolor 2 color / Cineoptichrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

2 Images

Cinecolor (subtractive 2 color)

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized film

83 Images in 9 Galleries

Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, beam-splitter, dye transfer
With the fourth Technicolor process the company dominated the market for color films from the mid-1930s to the 1950s. In a special camera, three b/w negative films were exposed through a beam-splitter that consisted of two prisms to form a cube. One ...

1859 Images in 65 Galleries

Roncarolo

Subtractive 2, 3 or 4 color: Beam-splitter and bi-pack, later dye-transfer
The Roncarolo system required a camera capable of recording two panchromatic negatives (which became three or four in subsequent patents) through the use of a beam splitter and red and green filters. The chromatic information registered on the two or ...

Dufaycolor

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm and 16 mm, reversal and negative-positive stock

Dufaycolor was a regular line screen process whereby the incident light was filtered through a pattern of tiny color patches created by lines in red, green and blue, the so called réseau.

200 Images in 9 Galleries

Hillman Process

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter, mirror system with two lenses

3 Images

Morgana Process

Additive 2 color: Alternating filters, 16 mm

1 Image

Gasparcolor OR Gaspar Color

Subtractive 3 color: Silver dye-bleach multilayer print film

Gasparcolor was the first three-color multi-layer monopack film available for practical use. It was a double-coated print film with a cyan layer on one side and two layers dyed magenta and yellow on the other side (see illustrations).

382 Images in 24 Galleries

Vericolor

Subtractive 2 color: unknown

40 Images

Bocca-Rudatis

Additive 3 color: lenticular screen
The procedure for obtaining the lenticular elements in relief required a series of steps: starting from three black and white positive color separations, obtained with any of the available methods, three matrices were printed, from which the film to ...

1 Image

Cinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sub-standard vertical

2 Images

Thomascolor

Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm

2 Images

Sistema Cristiani-Mascarini

Additive four-color: beam splitter and filters, four images on 35mm black and white film.
For this four-color process, the light beam was decomposed into four parts, each of which simultaneously exposed an area equal to one quarter of the 35mm frame of a black and white negative. This was obtained optically by placing a diaphragm and a ...

2 Images

Cosmocolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

2 Images

Dascolour

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated print

1 Image

Francita-Reality / Francita / Opticolor / Realita

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter and rotary fllter, substandard

9 Images in 1 Gallery

Harmonicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“Harmonicoior was developed by French chemist Maurice Combes. It was first formally demonstrated in London by Harmonicoior Films Ltd, of 4 Great Winchester Street, on the 23 March 1936 at the Curzon Soho with the film Talking Hands, produced at ...

Kodachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 8 and 16 mm

“In 1930 Mannes and Godowsky were invited to join the staff of the Kodak Research Laboratory, where they concentrated on methods of processing multilayer films, while their colleagues worked out ways of manufacturing them. The result was the new Kodachrome film, launched in 1935. Three very thin emulsion layers were coated on film base, the emulsions being sensitised with non-wandering dyes to red, green and blue light, the red-sensitive layer being at the bottom.” (Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 121 ff.)

44 Images in 4 Galleries

Crosene Process

Additive 4 color: Bi-pack, substandard

Telco Color, additive 2 color

Additive 2 color: Split optics, side by side

Agfacolor Neu / Agfacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal (from 1936), negative/positive process (from 1939)
“The New Agfacolor Process; Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, N. Y. A survey of the history of monopack or multilayer photographic color processes is given, including the coloring methods of greatest importance at the present time. These are: (a) ...

627 Images in 21 Galleries

Hirlicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack

2 Images

Berthon-Siemens / Siemens-Berthon / Siemens-Perutz-Verfahren / Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

5 Images

Russian three-color process

Subtractive three color

6 Images

Dunning Color

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

Telco color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Split optics, side by side, duplitized film