Kesdacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Line screen filter, duplitized film stock
”The process as illustrated in USP 1431309 was a two-color additive process, but it is stated that it could be a three- or four-color process. For the original photography, the negative was exposed through a line screen composed of alternate bands ...

1 Image

Prizma I

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The color experiments were conducted in the basement of a house at 1586 E. Seventeenth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. During this time a double-coated stock and a bleach formula which had much to do with the success of the later Prizma process were ...

Prizma II

Subtractive 2 color: Toning on double coated film
“In its final form Prizma made use of duplitized positive film. As in previous Prizma systems, the original negatives were alternate frame sequential exposures. The Prizma negative was printed on both sides of the positive film in a special ...

394 Images in 14 Galleries

Panchromotion

Additive 4 color: Rotary filter
”Kelley’s first color process was a four-color additive system introduced in 1913. Called Panchromotion, Kelley formed a company which would exploit the process commercially and, he hoped, provide strong competition for Kinemacolor. He apparently ...

2 Images

Kelleycolor

Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer
“In 1919 Kelley produced a series of coloured cartoons which were drawn by Pinto Colvig. In 1924 he introduced “Kelleycolor,” which was an imbibition process. Two colours were imbibed on a black-and-white key image. In 1926 he ...

1 Image

Cinecolor (subtractive 2 color)

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized film

93 Images in 9 Galleries

Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Apparently, associated with W. Friese-Greene, in the same year, Captain William Norman Lascelles-Davidson, also of Brighton, patented a triple lens motion picture camera (E.P. 23,863, 1898). The colour filters revolved either behind the lenses, ...

1 Image

Biocolour

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images
“Inevitably, the success of Kinemacolor led to the appearance of imitations. One company, Friese Greene Patents Ltd had been formed in 1908 to exploit several patents, mostly impractical, filed by Friese Greene. From this came a new company, ...

31 Images in 2 Galleries

Friese-Greene

Additive 2 or 3 color: Alternately stained

“In 1898 William Friese-Greene, a professional portrait photographer by trade, demonstrated in London ‘the first process of true natural-color cinematography.’ His program consisted of  ‘a series of animated natural-color pictures,’ and although this demonstration aroused considerable interest at the time, Friese-Greene was unable to exploit this system on a profitable basis. Undaunted, he eventually developed a total of four different color methods.”

112 Images in 2 Galleries

Agfacolor Neu / Agfacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal (from 1936), negative/positive process (from 1939)
“The New Agfacolor Process; Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, N. Y. A survey of the history of monopack or multilayer photographic color processes is given, including the coloring methods of greatest importance at the present time. These are: (a) ...

637 Images in 21 Galleries

Polacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multicolor dye images

Agfacolor Positiv Typ 5

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1 Image

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer
In 1994, Technicolor announced the development of an enhanced dye-transfer process. This process became effective in  June 1997. There was no official denomination, so “Technicolor No. VI” is not to be confused with statements from the mid ...

Zoechrome

Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Biochrom

Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Chromogenic film stock

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Magnachrome

Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size

Dugromacolor

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

1 Image

Audibert

Additive 3 color: Prism
“R. Berthon and M. Audibert patented a method of obtaining a virtual image by means of an anterior lens and prisms or mirrors. This idea was further improved upon in E.P. 17,023, 1913. In F.P. 458,040 Audibert proposed to use a negative front lens ...

2 Images

Berthon-Siemens / Siemens-Berthon / Siemens-Perutz-Verfahren / Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

5 Images

Berthon

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“R. Berthon patented the use of a lens diaphragm with three apertures, covered respectively with red, green and blue-violet filters, and a sensitive surface on a support, the other side of which was impressed with hemi-spherical, transparent, ...

4 Images

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...

171 Images in 7 Galleries

Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...

7 Images

Thomascolor

Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm

2 Images

Irix-Farbenfilm

Subtractive three-color process: imbibition
Three matrices in the subtractive primary colors are printed on the gelatin of the final print. Supposedly, the used dyes were particularly fast and able to prevent color bleeding. Pokorny started working on color cinematography in the 1920s, often ...

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...

4 Images

Chromogenic development

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic development

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach
“Probably the first use of the catalytic property of silver was in 1889, when E. Howard Farmer disclosed the action of a silver image upon strong dichromate solutions (Eng. P. 17773/89). When a plate or film, containing a silver image, is immersed ...

Chimicolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, mordant toning

2 Images

Gorsky Process

Ulysse

Two, three or four color color additive process: multiple lenses
The process relied on two-, three- or even four-color selections being superimposed on the screen. On the positive, two, three or four images of reduced dimensions were printed on a single frame with a longitudinal and lateral distance corresponding ...

Talkicolor

Additive 2 color: Alternately stained
“Two-colour additive process Talkicolor was developed by Percy James Pearce along with Dr Anthony Bernardi who was also involved in the development of Raycol. The process was funded mainly by the author Elinor Glyn through her company Elinor ...

3 Images in 1 Gallery

Brewster

Subtractive 2 or 3 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“The Brewster Process. (U.S.P. 1,752,477. 1930-) Camera. – P. D. Brewster, an American inventor, who was one of the first to apply the bipack system to colour cinematography, has a number of patents to his credit covering various cameras and ...

52 Images in 1 Gallery

Brewster

Subtractive 2 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“Following the premises of one of William Friese-Greene’s systems, this two-colour subtractive process required that two reels of film be printed in parallel through a lens fitted with a prism that split light in two directions, through red ...

Russian three-color process

Subtractive three color

6 Images

Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

1 Image

Cinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sub-standard vertical

2 Images

Cosmocolor

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

2 Images

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...

1 Image

Russian two-color system

Subtractive two color

1 Image

Panacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multilayer print

11 Images in 1 Gallery

Handschiegl / DeMille-Wyckoff / Wyckoff Process

Applied color: Imbibition
Similar to stenciling, the Handschiegl process was applied mechanically to manually defined image parts. Therefore it is an applied color process. After the film was shot and edited, for each color applied a separate print was made. In contrast to ...

141 Images in 8 Galleries

Harmonicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“Harmonicoior was developed by French chemist Maurice Combes. It was first formally demonstrated in London by Harmonicoior Films Ltd, of 4 Great Winchester Street, on the 23 March 1936 at the Curzon Soho with the film Talking Hands, produced at ...

Audibert

Addtive 3 color: Beam-splitter, mosaic screen, 65 mm

3 Images

Sistema Cristiani-Mascarini

Additive four-color: beam splitter and filters, four images on 35mm black and white film.
For this four-color process, the light beam was decomposed into four parts, each of which simultaneously exposed an area equal to one quarter of the 35mm frame of a black and white negative. This was obtained optically by placing a diaphragm and a ...

2 Images

Horst

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative

4 Images in 1 Gallery

Sirius

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
“The Dutch Sirius Color process (1929) used a camera with a beamsplitting system behind the lens to expose a single film, the film passing through two gates at right angles to each other. The double-coated print film was dye-toned. The process ...

139 Images in 3 Galleries

Rouxcolor 2 color / Cineoptichrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

2 Images

Procédé Tetrachrome

Additive four-color process: rotating filters
Based on four primary colors, the process successively recorded two simultaneous images for two primary colors each. In projection, the four images were combined on screen, supposedly via a regular projector.

Dufaycolor

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm and 16 mm, reversal and negative-positive stock

Dufaycolor was a regular line screen process whereby the incident light was filtered through a pattern of tiny color patches created by lines in red, green and blue, the so called réseau.

230 Images in 9 Galleries

Spicer-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm reversal
For a description of Spicer-Dufay see detail page on Dufaycolor)

78 Images in 2 Galleries

Dufaycolor reversal

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 16 mm, reversal
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)

Versicolor-Dufay

Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Dufay / Dioptichrome Plate (sometimes incorrectly referenced as Dioptochrome)

Additive 2-4 color: Line screen plate (réseau), still photography and early experiments with film
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)

10 Images

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography
“Louis Ducos du Hauron is reported to have become interested in the reproduction of colors by photography in 1859, when he was twentyone years old (Potonniée, 1939). In 1862 he submitted to a friend of his family, M. Lelut, a paper embodying ...

2 Images

Kodachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 8 and 16 mm

“In 1930 Mannes and Godowsky were invited to join the staff of the Kodak Research Laboratory, where they concentrated on methods of processing multilayer films, while their colleagues worked out ways of manufacturing them. The result was the new Kodachrome film, launched in 1935. Three very thin emulsion layers were coated on film base, the emulsions being sensitised with non-wandering dyes to red, green and blue light, the red-sensitive layer being at the bottom.” (Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 121 ff.)

58 Images in 4 Galleries

Telco Color, additive 2 color

Additive 2 color: Split optics, side by side

Telco color subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Split optics, side by side, duplitized film

1 Image

Gaumont Chronochrome

Additive 3 color: Sawn-off lenses and filters, simultaneous taking and projection
“The competition between Kinemacolor and other rival systems was partially stimulated by a Utopian faith in the potential of film technology to achieve ‘natural colour’, reality ‘as it is’ being the goal of the cinematic ...

12 Images in 2 Galleries

Douglass Color No. 1

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“This two-color additive system for color cinematography was invented in 1916 by Leon Forrest Douglass of San Rafael, California. A special beam splitter camera would advance each roll of film two frames per exposure with its double frame pull down ...

3 Images

Douglass Color No. 2

Subtractive 2 color: Separations, multi-layer prints
“Douglass Color No. 2 (1919). The two negatives of the Douglass Color system No. 1 were printed on a positive. In this updated version of the process, rather than projecting the frames through red and green filters, both latent images were ...

Pinatype / Pinatypie

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

4 Images

Fullcolor

Subtractive 2 colors: Bi-pack, duplitized film

Dascolour

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated print

1 Image

Ufacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, mordant toning

136 Images in 7 Galleries

Konicolor

Subtractive 3 color

“The Konicolor system, introduced by Konishiroku Shashin Kogyo (Now Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.), split the image into three colors and shot them separately onto three b&w films. In that sense it had something in common with the US ‘Technicolor system’, but this was not a contact print with color dye to create positive film, but used coated emulsion to develop each color in a triple process, which is peculiar. […].”

Katachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack silver dye-bleach, still photography
Karl Schinzel proposed a multi-layered monopack for still photography, based on the principle of the dye-bleach process which was later elaborated to a practical application with Gasparcolor.

Joly

Additive 3 color: Line screen process, still photography
“In 1894 Professor John Joly of Dublin patented a process for producing a screen of red, green and blue-violet lines by ruling them on a gelatin-coated glass plate. Joly used ruling machines of great accuracy, with drawing pens trailed across ...

7 Images

Monopack stripping

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack, stripping, still photography
“To offset the possible effects of poor contact between the various members of the tripack, J. H. Smith coated the emulsions directly one on top of the other, but with an insulating layer of collodion between them. In this manner there was ...

1 Image

Warner-Powrie

Additive 3 color: Line screen
“The Warner-Powrie process patented in 1905 was the earliest commercial process using a screen made with bichromated colloid. A glass plate was thinly coated with bichromated gelatin or fish glue and exposed to light through a screen having ...

Kodachrome Two-color 1915, after 1930 renamed Fox Nature Color

Subtractive 2 color process: Beam-splitter, double-coated film

The Kodachrome process was invented in 1913 by John G. Capstaff for still photography and subsequently adapted to motion pictures. For the process two frames were advanced simultaneously, one located above the other. The light passed either through two lenses or through a beam-splitter, fitted with red and green filters. The release print was exposed through a beam-splitter whereby the alternate frames were projected onto either side of double-coated stock. After development by a usual b/w process, the film was tanned to harden the exposed areas. The soft areas were dyed red-orange and blue-green respectively.

350 Images in 12 Galleries

Pantachrom

Subtractive 3 color: Bi-pack and lenticular film recording, duplitized film with toning and silver dye-bleach
“In October, Eggert of the Agfa Research Department, read a paper at the Berlin meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für photographische Forschung, on the Pantochrom subtractive lenticular bipack tricolor process. (Fig. 1) The green and blue ...

19 Images in 3 Galleries

Thornton

Additive two-color or four-color process: beam splitter and mosaic screen, films
In this process, two positives, one orange-red one blue-green, were cemented together. Several specifications and modifications exist, for instance the strengthening of the perforated film margins via a second exposure, in an attempt to overcome wear ...

Szczepanik

Additive 3 color: Moving lenses
“The process of J. Szczepanik in 1925 was impracticable. He used a non-intermittent camera having a chain of eighteen lenses moving together with the film behind a collimating lens, three pictures being simultaneously exposed.” (Klein, ...

Color theory

Additive 3 color: Additive 3 color, still photography
“In a lecture on the theory of three primary colors, given at the Royal Institution of Great Britain on May 17, 1861, Maxwell presented the first demonstration of a photograph in color. According to the records of that meeting (Maxwell, 1890c, ...

1 Image

British Tricolour / Dufaychrome

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, three-strip, multiple printing

19 Images in 3 Galleries

Harriscolor

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, single-coated
“Harriscolor In this method as in other methods of color photography, independent color value negatives are first obtained. The Harriscolor process can employ one of the following two methods: Either a camera wherein the dividing light prisms ...

3 Images

Orthochromatic stock

b/w photography: Orthochromatic b/w stock
“In 1873 Dr Vogel discovered that by adding dyes to the sensitive material, its sensitivity could be extended, so that it would record green as well as blue. The new ‘orthochromatic’ plates were available commercially from 1882. The ...

2 Images

Sensitizing theory

Color theory
“Dr. H. W. Vogel, the discoverer of colour sensitizers, made three-colour photography possible, and has been the first to recognise the relation between colour sensitiveness of plate and printing colour in the following principle made known in ...

Isensee

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The first patent that has been found was granted to H. Isensee and he placed in front of the lens, both in taking and projection, a rotary shutter with three 120 degrees sectors in the usual colors.” (Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of ...

2 Images

Technicolor No. I

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

During the capturing of the film a beam-splitter in combination with filters in the camera divided the incoming light into a red and a green separation negative on black-and-white stock. When projected in the cinema the two images were combined simultaneously by additive mixture through corresponding red and green filters into one picture consisting of red and green colored light. The reduction of the whole color range to two colors (and their additive combinations) was necessary because of the complex optical arrangement.

6 Images in 1 Gallery

Urban-Joy Process, improvement of Kinemacolor, later called Kinekrom

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“In the design of apparatus Urban was assisted after 1905 by Henry W. Joy. The Urban-Joy perforator appeared in 1906. The Urban-Joy anti-firing device, a shutter to prevent the firing of inflammable film when projectors broke down, was another ...

Rotocolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“The Rotocolor process was an additive system for color cinematography. The process was announced in 1931 by H. Muller. According to an article in Film Daily, April 12, 1931, and The Motion Picture Herald, April 11, 1931, the process consisted of ...

Chromart Simplex

Subtractive 2 color: Chromogenic monopack

Chromart Tricolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Gualtierotti or Cicona e Gualtierotti

Additive two-color: optical system, filters, 64mm negative.
Unlike other additive systems invented in previous years, Gualtierotti tried to avoid the phenomenon of chromatic aberration inherent in the use of multiple lenses or the creation of successive separation records. The proposed solution was based on ...

1 Image

Agfacolor lenticular / Agfacolor Linsenrasterfilm

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
The basic idea of the lenticular film was developed by the German Raphaël Liesegang in 1896 and applied to still photography by the French Rodolphe Berthon in 1908. The lenticular process applies tiny cylindrical lenses embossed on the film support ...

15 Images

Hirlicolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack

2 Images

Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter

Kinemacolor was an additive process operated with alternating red and green filters that were applied to the shutter in front of the camera and in front of the projector. With at least 32 fps the frame rate was double the minimal frame rate of 16 fps. Time parallax with small differences between the red and green record resulted in color fringes that became visible when objects or scenes were moving.

13 Images in 3 Galleries

Predecessor of Kinemacolor

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Then we come upon the name of George Albert Smith, F.R.A.S., of Laboratory Lodge, Roman Crescent, Southwick, Brighton, who in E.P. 26,671, of 1906, patented the method which eventually was commercialized as Kinemacolor. In this patent he ...

Lippmann

Direct color photography: Interference, still photography
“In 1891, Professor Gabriel Lippmann demonstrated to the French Académie des Sciences interference colour photographs of the spectrum and of stained glass windows, taken by a modification of Wiener’s method. An exceedingly fine grained, ...

5 Images

Crosene Process

Additive 4 color: Bi-pack, substandard

Lee and Turner

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Frederick Marshall Lee, of Walton, and Edward Raymond Turner, of Hounslow, to whom is usually accorded the credit of achieving the first practical results in additive projection. Their experimental work was financed by Charles Urban, a ...

16 Images in 1 Gallery

Gilmore Color

Additive 2 color: Rotary filter
“Gilmore’s two-color additive process was based on a patent granted to F. E. Ives in 1918. A unique optical system exposed two images in pairs, and quarter-turned them lengthwise side by side on standard 35 mm film stock. One of the images was ...

1 Image

Iriscolor

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter camera, imbibition printing
Similar to Technicolor, the Iriscolor process needed a special beam-splitter camera for exposing three black-and-white negatives on Kodak film stock. These negatives were used for imbibition printing. Between 1940 and 1942, Tobis Tonbild-Syndikat AG ...

Donisthorpe

Additive two color process: rotating filters and toning
The film is recorded through alternating red and green filters, creating two color separations. After development, the print is placed in two alternating dye-baths, toning the blacks green and the whites red. Additionally, a black-and-white copy is ...

Procédé Colombier

Subtractive 3 color: Tri-pack
“M. F. de Colombier appears to have been the first to suggest the application of this system to cinematography, and like so many French patents it is a little indefinite in phraseology. Three films were employed representing the same view and ...

1 Image

Roncarolo

Subtractive 2, 3 or 4 color: Beam-splitter and bi-pack, later dye-transfer
The Roncarolo system required a camera capable of recording two panchromatic negatives (which became three or four in subsequent patents) through the use of a beam splitter and red and green filters. The chromatic information registered on the two or ...

Wolff-Heide

additive three-color: Integrated filters and rotary filter
Much like many other additive processes, the Wolff-Heide system was based on three black and white color separations printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through a rotary filter attached to the projector. However, the biggest ...

Busch Farbenfilm

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, red-green

5 Images in 1 Gallery

Polacolor Instant Photography

instant still photography
“Polacolor was commercialized in 1963 and became an immediate success. It was acclaimed as the “most outstanding single advance in photographic science made during this century” (Crawley 1963). Indeed, Polacolor introduced important new ...

4 Images

Caille

Additive three-color: line screen, still photography
Process for still photography in which light is filtered through a screen or transparent plate covered in lines or dots in the primary colors orange, green and violet. For the positive, the process relies on a support material which includes an ...

Eastman Ektachrome 7251

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, high speed, color reversal, 16mm, daylight

Eastman Color Print Film 5384 / 7384

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color High Speed Negative Film 7292

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 5381 (1950)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
Not to be confused with the Eastman Color Print Film 5381 / 7381 from 1970.

Eastman Color Internegative Film 5243

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Internegative Film 5245

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 5382 / 7382

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Television Recording Film 5374 / 7374

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Reversal Color Print Film Type 5269 / 7387

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal
Eastman Kodak reversal film duplication stock for (semi)professional use. Replaced Type 5265. Type 7387 introduced in 1964 as improved version. Difficult to see the difference (BL).

Eastman Color Internegative Film 5270 / 7270

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Intermedeate Film 5253

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 7383

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 5385 / 7385

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman RP Negative Film 7229

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Reversal Print Film 7387

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

Eastman Color Print Film 5744

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 7380

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm

Eastman Direct MP Film 5360 / 7360

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Reversal Intermedeate Film 5249 / 7249

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal

Eastman Color SP Print Film 5383 / 7383

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color SP Low Contrast (minus 25%) Print Film 5738 / 7738

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color LF Print Film 7378

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm

Eastman Color LFSP Film 7379

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm

Eastman Color II Negative, type 5247 / 7247 F

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color II Internegative Film 5272 / 7272 S

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Negative Film 7291

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 100 ASA

Eastman Color LC Print Film 5380 / 7380

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Fine Grain Release Positive Film 5302 / 7302

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 100T Color Negative Film 7248

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm

Eastman EXR 50D Color Negative Film 5245 / 7245

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 500T Color Negative Film 5296

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 100T Color Negative Film 5248

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 100 ASA

Eastman EXR 500T Color Negative Film 7296

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm

Eastman EXR Color Intermediate Film 5244 / 7244

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 200T Color Negative Film 5293 / 7293

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Experimental Eastman Separation Film (5238)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR Color Print Film 5386 / 7386

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color LC Print Film 5385 / 7385

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 500T 5298 / 7298 (T)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman EXR 200T 5287 / 7287 Ultra Latitude (W)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Eastman EXR Primetime 640T Teleproduction Film 5600 (P)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 650 ASA

Kodak Vision 320T Color Negative Film 5277 / 7277 (Q)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 320 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5279 / 7279 (U)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Eastman Color Intermediate Film 5253 / 7253

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Internegative Film 5271 / 7271

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Print Film 5381 / 7381 (1970)

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
Not to be confused with the Eastman Color Print Film 5381 from 1950.

Eastman Color Print Film 5281 / 7281

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Panchromatic Separation Film 5216

Black and white panchromatic film: Three-color separation positives from color negatives

Eastman Panchromatic Separation Film 5235

Black and white panchromatic film: Three-color separation positives from color negatives

Kodak Vision 250D Color Negative Film 5246 / 7246

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision 200T Color Negative Film 5274 / 7274

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Eastman Special Order Print Film SO-886

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Color Print Film 2383

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision Premiere Color Print Film 2393

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 5289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Vision Color Intermediate Film 2242 / 3242

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision 800T Color Negative Film 7289

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 16mm, Tungsten, 800 ASA

Kodak Panchromatic Separation Film 2238

Black and white panchromatic film: Three-color separation positives from color negatives

Kodak Vision "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5284 / 7284

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision 500T Color Negative Film 5263 / 7263

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5218 / 7218

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 "Expression" 500T Color Negative Film 5229 / 7229

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 250D Color Negative Film 5205 / 7205

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision2 100T Color Negative Film 5212 / 7212

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision2 200T Color Negative Film 5217 / 7217

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm, Tungsten, 200 ASA

Kodak Vision2 50D Color Negative Film 5201 / 7201

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Vision2 "HD Color Scan Film" 500T Color Negative Film 5299 / 7299

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision3 500T Color Negative Film 5219 / 7219

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision2 500T Color Negative Film 5260

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten, 500 ASA

Kodak Vision3 250D Color Negative Film 5207 / 7207

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 250 ASA

Kodak Vision3 Color Digital Intermediate Film 5254 / 2254

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak Vision3 50D Color Negative Film 5203 / 7203

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight, 50 ASA

Kodak Color Asset Protection Film 2332

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Eastman Color Intermediate Film 2244

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak EXR Primetime 640T Teleproduction Film 5620 / 7620

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Kodak SFX 200T Color Negative Film

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, 35 mm

Eastman EXR Color Print Film 2386 / 3386

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Cinefotocolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack

Cinecolor additive 2 color / Cinecolour

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

2 Images

Americolor

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized

Cinechrome

Additive 2 color: Prism, rotary filter, double-sized film
“[…] pictures were taken side by side, full-size, on double-width film, the film not only being perforated on the edges but also down the centre between the pairs of images.” (Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour ...

3 Images

Finlay

Additive 3 color: Regular mosaic screen, still photography

9 Images in 1 Gallery

Mondiacolor

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen

Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory
Description of a variety of color processes, even for images in motion by the use of a rotary shutter.

Hydrotypie / Hydrotype / dye transfer

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Dunning Color

Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated

Bocca-Rudatis

Additive 3 color: lenticular screen
The procedure for obtaining the lenticular elements in relief required a series of steps: starting from three black and white positive color separations, obtained with any of the available methods, three matrices were printed, from which the film to ...

1 Image

Dye coupling

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
“One of the most elegant solutions to the problem of forming a colored image, lies in the utilization of the products formed by the action of the developer upon the latent image. By this means there is formed a dye image whose intensity follows ...

1 Image

Jumeaux/Davidson

Additive 3 color: Prism

2 Images

Gasparcolor OR Gaspar Color

Subtractive 3 color: Silver dye-bleach multilayer print film

Gasparcolor was the first three-color multi-layer monopack film available for practical use. It was a double-coated print film with a cyan layer on one side and two layers dyed magenta and yellow on the other side (see illustrations).

401 Images in 24 Galleries

Autochrome

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen, still photography
“The Autochrome process was the first fully practical single-plate colour process to reach the photographic public. It was easy to use. The plate was loaded into a conventional holder, glass to the front. The exposure was made through a yellow ...

16 Images

Autochrome film / Cinécolor

Additive 3 color: Mosaic screen
Several attempts were made to apply the Autochrome process invented by the Lumière brothers to motion pictures. Transparent potato starch grains with a diameter of 15-20 were colored in the additive primaries red, green and blue. The spaces between ...

27 Images in 2 Galleries

Colorgraph / Cinecolorgraph

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film
“The principle of the subtractive colour process was described first by Louis Ducos du Hauron in 1868. Although eminently suitable for colour motion pictures, the principle could not be applied until means were found of producing several colour ...

1 Image

Traube / Uvachrome

Subtractive 3 color: Mordanting, dye transfer, wash-off relief, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

3 Images

Traube / Diachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Mordant toning, still photography
“In the imbibition process, a dye image is transferred from a gelatin relief image to a receiving layer made either of paper or film. Charles Cros described this method of “hydrotypie” transfer printing in 1880 and suggested it ...

Kingston Process

Additive three color process: rotary filters
Three black-and-white color separations were printed consecutively on one film strip and projected through the corresponding color filters, thus combining to one color image on screen.

Theory of three-color photography

Theory

11 Images

Auto Natural Color / Bernardi

Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard

Raycol

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sawn-off lens

13 Images in 1 Gallery

Keller-Dorian

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

14 Images in 2 Galleries

Kodacolor / Keller-Dorian Color

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“LENTICULAR PROCESS In 1896 R. E. Liesegang (Ahriman, 1896) suggested a photographic color process based upon the use of banded filters in the camera aperture. […] In 1909 R. Berthon (British Patent 10,611; see also Berthon, 1910a, b) ...

24 Images in 1 Gallery

Agfa-Gevaert

Subtractive 3 color

Chromo-Film

Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Bi-pack

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, still photography
A. Gurtner (Eng. P. 7924/03; U.S.P. 730454), used a front element that was sensitive only to the blue, and a rear element that was sensitive up to but not including the red. He was the first person to suggest that the two films or plates be placed ...

1 Image

Polychromide

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, later bi-pack, mordant dye
“Polychromide, a two-color subtractive process invented in 1918 by Aron Hamburger, achieved limited commercial success overseas, and was occasionally employed in England as late as 1933. Originally an orthochromatic and a panchromatic negative were ...

64 Images in 2 Galleries

Hillman Process

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter, mirror system with two lenses

3 Images

Hérault Trichrome

Additive 3 color: Alternately stained in red, green and blue
“The Hérault Trichrome process was demonstrated in Paris on 1 October 1926, with three films made by A. Rodde — a fashion show, a documentary on Brittany and a tableau of the Legend of the King of Ys. Hérault Trichrome was an extension of ...

12 Images in 1 Gallery

Fotoncolor OR Fotonkolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1 Image

Vitacolor

Subtractive 2 color: Single coated

Vericolor

Subtractive 2 color: unknown

40 Images

Orwocolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

1026 Images in 27 Galleries

Orwochrom

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal, 16 mm

84 Images in 3 Galleries

Orwocolor NC 1

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Orwocolor NC 3

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Agfacolor Negative, type B 333

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, daylight
For more information on the Agfacolor chromogenic process see Agfacolor Neu / Agfacolor.

11 Images

Agfacolor Negative, type G 334

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten

Agfacolor Negative, type G 432

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, Tungsten

Hand coloring

Applied colors: Manual application

Coloring of individual frames by the use of very fine brushes. The process was previously applied to lantern slides. Any water based translucent dye was suited for the process, most often the coloring was done with acid dyes.

250 Images in 18 Galleries

Chromolithography

Applied colors: printing
Widely used in print media around 1900, the chromolithographic printing process was first adapted for the Laterna Magica and then utilized to produce early animated films primarily aimed at children. These films were usually very short ...

119 Images in 3 Galleries

Technicolor No. II

Subtractive 2 color: 2 toned films cemented

The first subtractive 2 color process introduced by Technicolor captured the incoming light through a beam splitter with red and green filters also. However, in contrast to the first Technicolor process, the two b/w images were recorded on one negative strip. This was achieved by the pull-down of two frames simultaneously, a process that required the double speed in the camera. These two frames were arranged in pairs, whereby the green record was inverted up-side down (see image).

133 Images in 8 Galleries

Technicolor No. III

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, dye transfer

The third Technicolor process used the same camera as process no. II to combine a pair of frames of the red and green record respectively on the b/w negative (see image). In contrast to the former process, however, the two images were printed on one side of the positive by the dye transfer or imbibition process.